Animal vs Plant Mitosis
Mitosis is one of the vital processes that the life demands to sustain, in which a single cell is divided into two complete cells. All the eukaryotic plants and animal cells undergo the process of mitosis. The outcome of the process is a new cell with the same number of chromosomes as in the first or original cell, and this is common for both plant and animal cells. However, the differences between animal and plant mitosis are important to know. This article discusses the main mitotic steps of both animals and plants before concluding with a comparison between the two processes.
Mitosis in animal cells is a very complex process involving three major steps known as Inter Phase, Nuclear division, and cytoplasmic division. The interphase is the longest of all taking almost 90 per cent of the cell cycle, and it is the time between the states of the newly formed cell and the cell that is ready to be divided into two. The interphase has three main processes called as G1, S, and G2. The organelle formation, DNA replication, and chromosome formation take place in G1, S, and G2 stages respectively. The second major step of the mitosis is the nuclear division, which is a highly complex process including five steps known as Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. All those phases perform different processes including disassemble the nuclear envelope and nucleolus, Chromatin formation, spindle formation with centrioles from the opposite ends, breaking the two sister chromosomes from the centromeres, and spindle shortening to polarize the two newly formed nuclei. After the formation of two nuclei, the nuclear envelops are formed to separate those, and then the third major process of the mitosis is commenced. Finally, the cytoplasm is divided by constricting the cell membrane through the middle of the cell. The two newly formed cells then continue in the cell cycle by entering to the interphase. Mitosis takes place in every tissue of the animals, and it is a highly meticulous process regulated by proteins. The regulation is very strict, and each process passes through checkpoints to ensure the product is stable and not harmful to the cell and eventually to the animal.
Plant mitosis begins with the movement of the nucleus into the middle of the cell. The nuclear division takes place without an involvement of the centrioles to divide the chromatins from the centrioles. While the nuclear division is being completed, the cytoplasm starts to divide with the formation of a plane called Phragmoplast. After that, the cell membranes and cell wall is formed to complete the division of the two newly formed cells. The mitosis occurs in the meristem cells only. Additionally, the formation of constrictions does not take place in the plant mitosis.
What is the difference between Animal and Plant Mitosis?
• The formation of cell wall is characteristic for the plant cells, and it is no exception in the plant mitosis, as well. However, animal cell mitosis does not have such process.
• The spindle formation in plant cells takes place without centrioles, while animal cell mitosis involves the centriole in this process.
• The animal cell constricts through the middle during the cytoplasmic division after the formation of two separate nuclei. However, the cytoplasm is divided into two by forming a phragmoplast in plant cell mitosis, but it does not involve any constriction of the cell.
• Only the meristem tissue of the plants undergoes mitosis, while all the animal tissues undergo this process.