Difference Between Binary Fission and Budding

Binary Fission vs Budding
 

Binary fission and budding are two different types of asexual reproduction methods. Other than these two, regeneration and parthenogenesis are also considered as asexual reproduction types. Production of offspring without fertilization is known as asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction can be seen in almost all the prokaryotes, some plants, and in certain animals. It involves one parent individual and results in genetically identical individuals, also known as clones.

Binary Fission

Binary fission is a simple reproduction method which involves mitosis followed by the splitting of a parent individual. It is very common among prokaryotes. In the binary fission, two identical individuals are formed. First, circular chromosome in the prokaryotic genome replicates. Then a new plasma membrane and a cell wall are formed along the midline of the cell, dividing the parent cell into two equally sized cells. These newly formed cells contain a duplicate of the parent chromosome.

Budding

Budding is also a simple asexual reproduction method seen in fungi, certain plants, and in sponges like Hydra. Here, the replication of the nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis takes place. It is a process in which the parent individual produces a smaller individual known as a ‘bud’ by mitotic cell division. This individual is attached to its parent individual and eventually becomes detached from its parent individual. After it starts its independent life. This bud is identical to its parent individual, and it also contains a duplicate copy of its parent nucleus.

Binary Fission vs Budding

• Major difference between binary fission and budding is that in budding there is an outgrowth from the parent individual producing a bud, which is identical to its parent individual, but in binary fission, there is no bud or outgrowth formation. It only results in two identical individuals by splitting the parent cell into two parts with mitotic cell division followed by cytokinesis.

• In budding, a new individual is formed on the old individual. So the parent or old individual is still there without any change, but in binary fission, the old individual is split into two new individuals.

• Basically the prokaryotes show binary fission. Many eukaryotes like fungi, sponges, and certain plants are reproduced using budding.

• Among unicellular organisms, the only recognizable difference is that, in budding, the parent cell is always larger than the newly formed bud, but in binary fission, parent cell and the newly formed cell are similar in size.

• Cytoplasm of a parent cell is divided evenly during binary fission, but in budding, the cytoplasm is divided unevenly.

• Budding is a type of vegetative propagation while binary fission is a type of fission.

• For certain organisms, budding can be done artificially. Since binary fission is a natural process, it can never be done artificially.

• Budding process is extensively used in horticulture and agriculture. Unlike budding, binary fission process has no such usage.