Difference Between Carbine and Rifle

Carbine vs Rifle

Whether you are a young recruit in armed forces given a long firearm for the first time or a commoner interested in the history of firearms, you must have often been confused by the differences between a carbine and a rifle. This is because there is no clear cut definition of the two firearms, and weapons manufacturers have been making firearms similar to each other and naming them carbines or rifles depending upon their whims. This article attempts to find out the truth. Is there any difference between a carbine and a rifle, or is it a case of dual identity for a firearm.


Rifle is a long arm firearm that is so called because its barrel has grooves or has been rifled. Grooves in the barrel are made to make the bullet spin inside and come out of the barrel spinning, in a bid to keep it stabilized during its flight to its target. These grooves take the bullet 1-2 cm to the right for every 100 meters covered. This implies that the user knows the drift of a firearm once it has grooves in the barrel as he knows precisely how much the bullet move to its right on a day when no wind is blowing. Firearms made earlier had smooth barrels that were easier to make but lacked accuracy and stability as it was impossible to predict the deviation in the air of the bullet fired through them. Thus, the armies were forced to stand in parallel lines and asked to fire simultaneously at enemy lines. This was a good strategy as some enemies got hit even if they were not aimed by the bullets that hit them.

Today, for this very reason, all firearms, whether long or very short like revolvers have rifled barrels to increase their accuracy. However, traditionally a rifle has been a long firearm that has to be fired from the shoulder and has grooves inside the barrel to stabilize the flight of the bullet and to increase its velocity. Rifle is manually operated, and after every fire, the cartridge has to be fed by the user manually.


Carbine is a firearm that is very similar to a rifle or an assault rifle. It usually has a smaller barrel and weighs less than a rifle. Carbines are certainly bigger than pistols. In earlier days, when cavalries were commonly employed in wars, it became awkward for soldiers mounted on horses to take aim in close battle situations, or even hold the long barreled rifles.

When riding, it is always easier to handle a lighter and shorter firearm. This led to the development of shorter barreled carbines that were also light weight. However, lesser grooves because of shorter barrels mean carbines are less accurate than their bigger and heavier cousins. There is also a loss of the velocity on account of shorter barrels and on an average, for every inch shorter barrel one can expect a loss of 25 feet per second loss of velocity. Users also say that carbines are louder than rifles.

Carbine vs Rifle

• Carbines were developed to make it easier for cavalries to handle and take aim in close-battle situations

• Carbines are long firearms just like rifles, but they have shorter barrels and are lighter than rifles

• Carbines are slightly less accurate than rifles (lesser grooves) and bullet velocity is also lesser than rifles on account of shorter barrels but they are better in handling in close encounters