Difference Between DNA and RNA



DNA is the abbreviation of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid. RNA is the abbreviation of Ribo Nucleic Acid. In human, the DNA carries the genetic message. The DNA segments that carry this genetic message are called genes. Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Human have 23 pairs of chromosome. The total length of the chromosome is nearly 2 meters (Nearly the height of the human). There cells are small and not visible to the naked eye. The entire length of DNA is associated with a protein and coiled tightly, so the entire 2m DNA chain can be inside the nucleus. Human DNA is double stranded helix in shape. its like a ladder. Every DNA nucleotide (The building block of DNA) has a deoxyribose sugar, one phosphate connected to sugar and a base. The base can be adenine or thymine, cytosine or Guanine.The nucleotide will join and form the phosphate di ester bond and DNA chain will be formed. In DNA there are two DNA chains, one is complementary to other. the chains are joined anti parallel. DNA has the ability to replicate itself or produce mRNA (messenger RNA) to produce protein. All cell reaction are depends on DNA’s message and this message will be transformed to mRNA and the messenger will come out of the nucleus to form the protein.

Other organisms like bacteria has circular DNA as genetic material. The Mitochondria in human and the chlorophylls in plant also has circular DNA.

RNA is usually single chain. Usually it is used to carry the message from DNA to protein synthesis site and help in protein synthesis. Some virus may have RNA as genetic material. Most of the viruses causing common cold are RNA viruses. RNA has Ribose sugar. In RNA the thymine is replaced by Uracil base. RNA is usually formed from DNA, but DNA cannot be formed from RNA (Except the retro viruses, where the enzyme reverse transcript as is present) In human there are three type of RNAs. mRNA, rRNA, tRNA are those. Compared with DNA, RNA is small in size. RNA will not be transfered as genetic material when the cell form a new cell (Except RNA virus).

Unlike DNA, RNA is not associated with histone protein.

The DNA can be analysed by southern blotting, RNA will be analysed by northern blotting.

In general, DNA is the GENETIC MATERIAL, RNA helps to get the message from DNA and synthesis proteins. RNA can be formed from DNA. DNA cannot be formed from RNA (Except retro viruses). DNA is double stranded. RNA single stranded (single chain). DNA will be given to the daughter cells when cell divides, but not RNA. DNA is inside the nucleus or the mitochondria. RNA can be inside the nucleus of the cell or in the cytoplasm( Outside the nucleus)