Key Difference – First vs. Second Industrial Revolution
The key difference between first and second industrial revolution is that the first industrial revolution was centered on Textiles, steam power, and iron while the second was centered on steel, railroads, petroleum, chemicals and electricity. First and second industrial revolutions can be considered as the turning points in the development of human history. The industrial revolution is said to have begun around the 1760s and, depending on the development of technology, the industrial revolution can be categorized into the above mentioned two phases; first and second industrial revolution. This development is characterized by the transition of hand manufacturing to machine-based production. Many power tools were discovered and used for the benefit of economy of individuals as well as of the society. Let us first look at the two major phases of the industrial revolution in detail, and from there move on to identify the differences between first and second industrial revolution.
What is First Industrial Revolution?
With the industrial revolution, the living standard of people began to improve, and there was an economic development all around. First industrial revolution originated in Great Britain, and it spread to Western Europe and North America within a short period of time. As mentioned above, this transition ranges somewhere around 1716s to 1820s. In the first industrial revolution, there was a shift from the manual production process to machine manufacturing, introduction of chemicals, iron productions, development of water power and steam power, etc. Coal was used as a primary power generating source. However, almost all aspects of the life of people changed as a result of the industrial revolution. The income increased as a result of the increase of efficiency and this in turn increased the standard of living of many people. The textile industry was the first and fastest to use the modern technology and the cotton spinning powered by water or steam increased the output of the workers.
What is Second Industrial Revolution?
Second industrial revolution, which began somewhere in the 19th century, is also known as the technological revolution. It is said to have begun in the 1840s and spread until the First World War. The second industrial revolution is a continuation of the first industrial revolution and this was characterized with the increasing of adoption of the steam transport, large-scale manufacture of machine tools, and the increase in the use of steam-powered machines in the companies. Many railroads were built and a large-scale steel and iron productions could be seen. Another main invention of the second phase of the industrial revolution is electricity and electrical communication. The rapid industrial development in this period could be seen in Germany and United States. Apart from these, petroleum, paper making machines, automobiles, maritime technology, use of chemicals, etc. were also developed in a greater extent.
What is the difference between First and Second Industrial Revolution?
Period of First and Second Industrial Revolution
First Industrial Revolution: The first industrial revolution was from 1760 to 1840.
Second Industrial Revolution: The second industrial revolution started in 1840 and went on until the First World War.
Characteristics of First and Second Industrial Revolution
First Industrial Revolution: The first industrial revolution was called “The Industrial Revolution”.
Second Industrial Revolution: The second industrial revolution was called as “Technological Revolution”.
Fields of Transition
First Industrial Revolution: The first industrial revolution was centered on Textiles, steam power, and iron.
Second Industrial Revolution: The second industrial revolution or the technological revolution was centered on steel, railroads, petroleum, chemicals, and electricity.
First Industrial Revolution: The first industrial revolution started in Great Britain.
Second Industrial Revolution : The second industrial revolution originated in Germany.
Image Courtesy: “William Bell Scott – Iron and Coal” by en:William Bell Scott – originally uploaded on en.wikipedia by Alcinoe at 27 October 2005, 00:25. Filename was William_Bell_Scott_-_Iron_and_Coal.jpg.http://paintingdb.com/s/9679/. [Public Domain] via Wikimedia Commons “Hartmann Maschinenhalle 1868 (01)” by Unknown – scan by Norbert Kaiser. [ Public Domain ] via Wikimedia Commons