Difference Between Forging and Casting

Forging vs Casting

Forging and casting are manufacturing processes which involves metal. It is hard to make equipments or materials with metal, since they are very hard and difficult to work with them. However, the two methods, casting and forging, are easy and very old methods, which are in use for shaping metals and making specific shapes. Both are very old processes known for metalworking.


Forging uses compressive forces when shaping metals. This is a very old method, and traditionally it was performed by a smith. A hammer and anvil was used for this process. Forging is categorized into three as cold, warm or hot, based on the temperature at which it is performed. It is called hot forging when the metal temperature is above the material’s recrystallization temperature. If the temperature is below, but above 30% of the material’s recrystallization temperature it is called warm forging. When it is below 30% of the recrystallization temperature it is known as cold forging.

All the different forging processes can be mainly grouped into three classes. In the drawn out method length of the metal increases whereas cross section decreases. In the Upset method, the vice versa happens. Other method is the “squeezed in closed compression dies” method.

Forging produces stronger pieces than other methods. One of the disadvantages of forging is that the forged parts need further processing to achieve a finished product. Especially in cold forging it is difficult to perform these secondary adjustments. Another disadvantage is that forging requires a lot of expenditure for machinery, tools, facilities, etc.


In casting, molds in the required shapes are used. Then the liquid material is poured into the hollow cavity of the mold and allowed to solidify. When it is solidified, it is taken out of the mold, and it will then have the desired shape. Casting materials should have the ability to solidify after cooling and when heating it should melt.

Metals are widely used for casting. Especially, copper has been used for casting for a long time. Casting is a very old technique, and it has a history of about 6000 years. Other than metals, concrete, plaster of paris and plastic resins are used for casting. Sometimes the materials are mixed with chemicals to make it set or to make the casting process easy.

Casting is used to make sculptures, fountains, etc. Casting is very easy, and its product is neat. It is usually used to make shapes that are very complex; that is, these shapes are difficult to make without a mold, or may be very expensive if it is made otherwise.

Forging vs Casting

  • Casting uses a mold and forging doesn’t use a mold.
  • The piece produced from forging is much stronger than the piece produced from an equivalent casting method.
  • Casting is easier when the produce is more complex.
  • Casting is done with other materials like plastic, clay, but forging is only done with metals.
  • Comparatively, forging requires a lot of expenditure for machinery, tools, and other facilities.