Difference Between Golgi Apparatus and Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus vs Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum are two very important organelles inside cells. The two organelles are responsible for different but very important functions for the survival of the cells. These names are not alien for anyone who has heard of cell biology for a bit, as their activities are so often discussed among people. However, it would be necessary to explore the basic and most important characteristics of these organelles, and the presented comparison at the end of this text would be of great use for anyone.

Golgi Apparatus

Golgi apparatus is also known as the Golgi bodies or Golgi complex, which is a prominent organelle in a cell, especially in eukaryotic cells of both plants and animals. It is an arrangement of fluid filled discs covered by a membrane, which is exactly same as the cell membrane. The terms complex or apparatus being used on Golgi bodies because of that.

Golgi apparatus is considered as a part of the endomembrane system of cells, and it encases some of the important proteins and enzymes. Golgi complex performs the packaging of proteins prior to sending those to the targets, and the further processing those proteins take place inside Golgi bodies. Usually, the proteins that are produced at the rough endoplasmic reticulum being processed in Golgi bodies. These proteins being then sent for secretion. Each cell synthesize many different molecules through metabolism, anabolism to be exact, and those should be properly sorted, modified, packaged, and delivered to be functional in the right time at the right place; those vital steps are carried out by the Golgi apparatus.

Lipids, proteins, enzymes, and many others are amongst those molecules being processed by the Golgi bodies. Formation of enzyme-filled lysosomes is a product of Golgi apparatus. When the entire function of the Golgi complex is considered, it is clear that this organelle performs like a country’s essential postal service.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum is one very important structures in a cell, and there are two major types of it known as rough and smooth. Endoplasmic reticulum is often abbreviated as ER; hence, rough type is denoted as RER and the smooth type is symbolized as SER. RER comes with ribosomes present on the external surface, which gives it a rough appearance in the microscope, whereas SER has no ribosomes on its surface.

The structure of ER is a network of tubules and vesicles, where the surface of RER looks like an extension of the nuclear envelope; on the other hand, SER has its surface attached to the nucleus. When the functions of both RER and SER are considered together, ER is responsible for many, mainly including the poison detoxification, anabolism (aids in construction of both proteins and lipids), and catabolic pathways of carbohydrate breakdown.

In addition, the presence of ER makes sure that the shape of the cell is mostly preserved with its skeletal function. When an area of the cell membrane is damaged, the parts of ER, especially RER, fulfill the gaps; hence, it is a reserve of plasma membrane for both cells and organelles.


What is the difference between Golgi Apparatus and Endoplasmic Reticulum?

• Golgi bodies are an arrangement of few fluid-filled dishes whereas ER is a network of tubules and vesicles.

• Golgi apparatus sorts, modifies, and delivers the components in a cell, whereas ER is much a structurally aiding organelle for metabolic activities.

• The structure of ER is expanded inside the cell much more than the Golgi apparatus.

• Lysosomes are formed at the Golgi complex while the enzymes in lysosomes are synthesized at RER.