Hybridization vs Inbreeding
As breeding and hybridization are important aspects in protecting species, it is useful to know the difference between hybridization and inbreeding. Hybridization and inbreeding are two different types of selective breeding processes. Both processes involve plants and animals with different genetic qualities. The selective breeding methods are usually done artificially to produce special animals and plants with specific traits such as pest resistance, chemical tolerance, disease resistance, etc.
What is Hybridization?
In genetics, the process of crossing genetically different individual parents from two species to produce a fertile offspring is referred to as hybridization. The new fertile offspring is known as a hybrid. The hybrids are very important in the process of geographical isolation and speciation. Hybridization can be done or occur in both plants and animals. For example, mule is a very common example as a hybrid animal, which is produced through the breeding of a male donkey and a female horse. In this example, horse and donkey have 64 and 62 chromosome pairs respectively, but mule has only 63. Thus, the hybrids can have new gene combinations which may result in better adaptation for certain environment conditions, unlike their parents. In such cases,these hybrids can survive as a new species thus reinforcing the speciation. The process of plant hybridization can be divided into several categories including inter-varietal, intra-varietal, inter-specific and intergeneric hybridization.
What is Inbreeding?
Inbreeding is defined as the production of offspring by mating of parents that are genetically very closely related or close relatives. Inbreeding does not usually change the overall allele frequency. However, it can increase the amount of homozygous genotypes, which in t urn enhance the appearing of rare recessive alleles. Inbreeding is usually done for animals like cows, dogs, horses, etc. in order to pass their specific genes to next generations. However, there is a possibility of passing certain unwanted traits of parents to offspring that may cause genetic disorders.
What is the difference between Hybridization and Inbreeding?
• Hybridization is the process of crossing genetically different individuals to produce offspring, whereas inbreeding is the crossing of two closely related parents (close relatives) who share very similar alleles.
• Hybridization results in producing offsprings with very different alleles from their parents, whereas inbreeding produces offspring with very similar allele patterns to their parents.
• In the hybridization, two different species are involved, whereas, in inbreeding, parents belong to the same species.
• Hybridization enhances the heterozygous alleles, while inbreeding enhances the amount of homozygous alleles.
• Inbreeding involves whole live animal, whereas hybridization involves part of animal or plant.
• Transfer of certain undesirable traits from parents to offspring can be controlled during hybridization, but this is impossible in inbreeding.
• Inbreeding is more likely to cause genetic abnormalities, unlike hybridization.