Invention vs Discovery
You invent something that did not previously exist. You discover a real thing that is already existent.
Invention and discovery appear to have one and the same meaning, but they do not actually bear the same meaning. You invent something that did not previously exist. You discover a real thing that is already existent.
The physicist invents a transistor where as a biologist discovers the molecular structure of DNA. By inventing something you would have thought upon it and put it into that form. You discover something that was already there but you have come upon it with a view to find it out.
By inventing something you create a product that was not existent on earth before. By discovering a thing, you find that thing which was on earth even before your discovery. Invention is purely original in the sense that it is the result of your brain work. Your experimentation has resulted in the invention. Discovery of a thing has led people to know about it now though it existed well before it was actually found out.
Can you still call discovery an accident. It cannot be called an accident though since it has a purpose. The scientist or the biologist purposefully found out the thing. Therefore discovery cannot be called an accident. Invention does not necessarily involve exploration, whereas discovery necessarily involves exploration.
When something is discovered, it is made public so that people could understand it and its concept. Columbus discovered America and hence the place was made known to people. The place already existed even before Columbus found it. Invention amounts to creation. Alexander Graham Bell created the telephone. People still came to know about it when the announcement was made that Bell invented it.
There is a kind of philosophical binding too between invention and discovery. You invent something sometimes by using a principle or law that was discovered earlier. The converse may not be true at all times. Yet it can be true also. You might discover something with the help of an invention, for example a scientific tool or appliance. Thus each is not exclusive totally of the other. They can be mutually dependent too. Logically speaking you can say that discovery is a subset of invention.
Invention is a process, whereas discovery need not be a process. Invention can be the result of experimentation, whereas discovery is the determination of an existence. You determine the existence of something in a discovery, whereas you create something by experimentation in an invention.
Invention has nothing to do with nature, whereas discovery has everything to do with nature and surroundings. Discovery involves civilizations whereas invention does not involve civilizations. Mohenjodaro was a discovery whereas aeroplane was an invention. Mohenjodaro has to do with a civilization while aeroplane has nothing to do with civilization.
The difference between invention and discovery can be summarized as follows:
Invention is something you create by experimentation, whereas discovery is finding out something that already existed but not known.
Invention is a process whereas discovery is not a process.
Invention has nothing to do with nature, where as discovery has everything to do with nature.
Invention is scientific whereas discovery is natural.
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