Difference Between Neanderthals and Humans

Neanderthals vs Humans
 

One major difference between humans and Neanderthals is that Neanderthals are a subset of humans. Human and Neanderthal belong to primate order, sub group of mammals, which also include apes, monkeys and lemurs. Chimpanzees are the closest apes to humans. It is believed that the two linages of apes and hominins separated between 7 and 5 million years ago. According to the earliest known fossils found in Africa, it is believed that the first hominin group called australopiths evolved in the African continent 4 million years ago. Australopiths were more like apes than humans and had small cranial capacities. Australopiths were able to move using their legs (bipeds) and this characteristic feature is considered as the first human trait. The second human trait is the ability of tool-making, which appeared about 2.5 million years ago. By 2 million years ago, a new toolmaker group had appeared in Africa. They were the first humans, who come under the genus Homo. There were about 12 species under genus Homo, including Neanderthals. In this article, the difference between humans and Neanderthals will be outlined.

Who are Humans?

Humans are the species included in the genus Homo. According to the known fossils, there are about 12 species of humans including modern humans. Modern humans or Homo sapiens are the only species who have survived on Earth. And at the moment, the modern human are considered as the most intelligent species that have ever lived on this planet. The earliest humans were called Homohabilis who evolved between 2.1 and 1.4 million years ago. Then, the other human species including H. Erectus, H. rudolfenosis, H. gautengenosis , H. ergaster, H. antecessor, H. cepranesis, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, H. rhodesiensis, and H. tsaichangensis evolved between 1.9 and 0.2 million years ago. Then, by 0.2 million years ago, the modern humans evolved on the Earth.

Difference Between Neanderthals and Humans

Human Evolution

Who are Neanderthals?

Neanderthals or Homoneanderthalensis evolved 0.35 million years ago and lived in Europe and western Asia. These humans disappeared more recently, less than 30,000 years ago. These extinct humans had adaptations for cold weather. Unlike the modern humans, Neanderthals had strong and large bodies. Moreover, they had no chin eminence, and their mandible is large and heavy, unlike the modern humans. Their cranial capacity was higher than that of modern humans but had lower intelligence. Males and females had the same height. According to the proven DNA results, Neanderthals are closely related to modern humans. They lived with modern humans for several millennia. It is believed that the Neanderthals had white skin and brownish hair.

 Neanderthals vs Humans

What is the difference between Neanderthals and Humans?

• Connection:

• Neanderthals are humans categorized under the genus Homo.

• Survival:

• The only living human species is Homosapiens (modern humans).

• Neanderthals became extinct.

• Physical Characteristics of Neanderthals:

• Unlike the modern humans, Neanderthals had strong and large bodies.

• Neanderthals had no chin eminence.

• Neanderthals had large and heavy mandible.

• Their cranial capacity was higher than that of modern humans.

• Neanderthals males and females had the same height.

• Other features of Neanderthals:

• Neanderthals had adaptations for cold weather.

• Though Neanderthals cranial capacity was high, they had lower intelligence.

 

Images Courtesy:

  1. Human evolution by Gangulybiswarup (CC BY 3.0)
  2. Neanderthal by Photaro (CC BY-SA 3.0)