O Positive vs O Negative
Human blood can be classified into four different types of groups according to the antigen in the cell surface of the red blood cells. In 1900, Landsteiner found the two types of antigens called type A and B. So, the surface of red blood cells of a person can have either antigen A or B or neither of them. According to these discoveries blood was classified into four groups such as A, B, AB, or O (Verma and Agarwal, 2005). When deciding the ABO blood system, another important determinant is the antibodies, which is in the serum of the blood. As an example; if the red blood cell surface has the type A antigen, the serum of the blood contains the antibodies against type B red blood cells and vice versa. The ABO blood system is inherited through three alleles in chromosome 09 and alleles IA (A), IB (B), and ii (O) are inherited to the second generation from each parent. One parent has only two of these three alleles. Alleles IA and IB are dominant over ii (O).
Another system used to group the blood is Rh (Rhesus) blood group system. The presence or absence of the Rh antigen on the cell membrane of the red blood cells determines the positive or negative condition of the blood. Rh gene encodes for the two different antigens C and c, E and e with D, but for the positive or negative condition of the blood type, only D antigen is important. In the transfusion, Rh positive blood is given to Rh negative person, and that causes an incompatibility, but not in the first time. Immune system produces Rh antigens in Rh negative person’s body and the next transfusion of Rh positive blood will cause destruction of blood cells.
O Positive Blood
O positive blood type is determined by the alleles of ii. It lacks the antigens in the red blood cell surface. However, O blood group people have both anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies in the plasma, that act against type A blood and type B blood. Usually an O blood group person can receive blood from an individual who has only O blood group. If the receiver has O positive blood, then donor can be O positive or O negative. O positive individual can give blood only to persons having A positive, B positive, AB positive, or O positive blood.
O Negative Blood
Type O negative blood is determined by the same alleles that determine the O positive blood; i.e. ii, and it lacks Rh factor and both anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies in the plasma. So, type O negative can be given safely to all blood groups, type A positive and negative, B positive and negative etc. So, it can be considered as universal donor.
What is the difference between O Positive and O Negative?
• The main difference between O positive and O negative is that O positive blood has Rh factor on their cell membrane of the red blood cell, whereas O negative does not.
• Type O positive has antibodies; it has both anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies in the plasma that act against type A blood and type B blood, whereas O negative Blood lacks it.
• Type O positive blood can be given only to persons having A positive, B positive, AB positive, and O positive blood, while O negative person can donate blood to any person.
• Type O negative blood can be considered as universal donor whereas O positive cannot. So at emergency cases, anyone can be given O negative blood.