Difference Between Ovary and Uterus

Ovary vs Uterus

The female reproductive system of human is basically composed of internal structures including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and vagina and external structures including vulva, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, hymen, vaginal orifice, and vestibular glands. The main functions of this system include generation of eggs (oogenesis), the transportation of eggs (ovulation), impregnation, support of fetal development (gestation), and the birth of the fetus (parturition). To accomplish all these functions, female reproduction system requires a good hormonal balance.


Female reproductive system has two ovaries, which are almond-shaped and the ovaries are located on each site of the uterus. Each ovary contains oocytes, which lately convert to ova (mature eggs) during oogenesis. Ovaries are held by two ligaments called suspensory and ovarian ligaments, and not attached to the fallopian tubes.

Two primary functions of ovaries are the secretion of estrogen and progesterone, and development and releasing of ovum.  The entire ovary is covered with a connective tissue called the tunica albuginea. The cortex is located beneath the tunica albuginea. The cortex mainly contains a large amount of follicles in various stages of development. The medulla is found centrally and contains loose connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves. They are homologous to the testes of male reproductive system.



Teixeira, J., Rueda, B.R., and Pru, J.K., Uterine Stem cells (September 30, 2008), StemBook, ed. The Stem Cell Research Community, StemBook, doi/10.3824/stembook.1.16.1, http://www.stembook.org


Uterus is pear-shaped hollow muscular organ located at the top of the vagina. It is held by broad, round, uterosacral ligaments in the pelvis and is not attached to any part of the skeleton. It provides a site for menstruation, implantation of a fertilized ovum, development of the fetus during pregnancy, and labor. The uterine wall is relatively thick and has three layers;

-          the endometrium, which is the innermost layer

-          myometrium, the muscular middle later, and

-          perimetrium, which is the outer serosal layer that covers the body of uterus.

Endometrium makes the major portion of the uterus and is composed of smooth muscles. The thickness of it varies from 0.5 mm to 5 mm.  Endometrium lines the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women and has an abundant supply of blood vessels and glands.

What is the difference between Ovary and Uterus?

• Female reproductive system has two ovaries and one uterus.

• Ovaries are located on each side of the uterus.

• Uterus is pear- shaped muscular organ, whereas ovaries are almond-shaped organs.

• Ovaries produce hormones, whereas uterus does not.

• Uterus has a hollow structure, unlike ovaries.

• Ovary contains a large amount of follicles, but uterus does not.

• Ovaries develop and release ovum while the uterus is the site of implantation of a fertilized ovum, development of the fetus during pregnancy, and labor.

• Fallopian tubes are attached to uterus, but not to ovaries.

• Ovary contains three layers; tunica albuginea, cortex, and medulla, and the three layers of the uterus are endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium.