Platinum vs Palladium
Both platinum and palladium are d block elements. They are commonly known as transition metals. As like most of the transition metals, these also have the ability to form compounds with several oxidation states and also can form complexes with various ligands. Both palladium and platinum are white-color metals. They are used for jewelry making. Since they are extremely rare metals, they are categorized as precious metals. Both these metals are very expensive, which has limited their usages.
Platinum or Pt is the transition metal with the atomic number 78. It is in the same periodic table group as Nickel and Palladium. So has the electric configuration similar to Ni with outer orbitals having s2 d8 arrangement. Pt, most commonly, forms +2 and +4 oxidation states. It can also form +1 and +3 oxidation states too. Pt is silvery white in color and has a higher density. It has six isotopes. Among these, most abundant one is 195Pt. Atomic mass of Pt is about 195 g mol-1. Pt doesn’t oxidize or reacts with HCl or nitric acid. It is highly resistant to corrosion. Pt also can withstand a very high temperature without melting. (Its melting point is 1768.3 °C) Also, it is paramagnetic. Pt is a very rare metal, which is used in jewelry making. Pt jewelry is also known as white gold jewelry and is very expensive. Further it can be used as the electrode in electrochemical sensors, and cells. Pt is a good catalyst to use in chemical reactions. South Africa is the number one producer of platinum metal.
The chemical symbol of Palladium is Pd, and it is the 46th element in the periodic table. Palladium belongs to group 10 as like platinum. Therefore, it has similarities to platinum. Palladium has a silvery white color which makes it suitable for jewelries. It is soft and ductile but, after cold work, it becomes stronger and harder. Palladium has a very low reactivity. When acids like HCl, nitric or sulfuric are used, palladium slowly dissolves in those. It doesn’t react with oxygen. However, when heated to a very high temperature like 800°C, palladium will form an oxide layer. Atomic mass of palladium is about 106, and it has a melting point of 1554.9 °C. Palladium shows 0, +1, +2 and +4 oxidation states commonly. Other than for jewelry making palladium is largely used in catalytic converters. It is a good catalyst for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. Further, palladium is used in electronics, medicine and dentistry. Palladium deposits are found in Russia, South Africa, United States, and Canada.
What is the difference between Platinum and Palladium?
• The atomic number of palladium is 46 and for platinum it is 78.
• Platinum is in the 6th period whereas, palladium is in the 5th period.
• Palladium has a lower melting point than platinum.
• Platinum is denser than palladium.
• South Africa is the largest platinum producer, whereas palladium is largely produced by Russia.
• Platinum is expensive than palladium.