Present Participle vs Past Participle
Present participle and Past participle are two terms used in English grammar and they show some difference between them when it comes to their application. Present participle and past participle are both used in the formation of various tense forms such as present perfect tense and past perfect tense and other present forms. It is important to know that past participle is used in the formation of present perfect tense forms, and the present participle forms are used in the formation of several present tense forms. This is the main difference between the two terms present participle and past participle.
Look at the two sentences,
1. Francis has returned from America yesterday.
2. Angela has given a lot of money to Robert.
In both the sentences you can find that the past participle form of the verb ‘return’ is used as ‘returned’, and the past participle form of the verb ‘give’ is used as ‘given’ respectively. You can cite other examples too.
1. She had looked at the sky and said.
2. Robert had read the book long ago.
In both the sentences given above, you can see that the past participle forms of the verbs ‘look’ and ‘read’ are rightly employed respectively. It is interesting to note that the past participle forms are added to either ‘has’ or ‘had’ as the case may be.
In other words, in the case of present perfect tense the auxiliary verb ‘has’ is used along with the past participle form of the verb, and in the past perfect tense the auxiliary verb ‘had’ is used along with the past participle form of the verb.
Present participle forms are used in the formation of sentences such as ‘I am reading’ and ‘Francis is running’ and the like. They can be used in simple present, present continuous, and the like.