Tartrate vs Succinate
The key difference between tartrate and succinate is that succinate is derived from the succinic acid and tartrate is derived from the tartaric acid. These two chemical substances are widely used in the beverage industry and drug manufacturing. Succinic acid is ethan-1,2-dicarboxylic acid. Succinate can donate electrons for the chemical reactions that need electrons. So, succinate plays an important role in the citric acid cycle as an intermediate. It also works during inflammation. Tartaric acid is 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid. The major commercial source of tartrate is the wine industry. Metoprolol succinate and metoprolol tartrate are different drug molecules which treat high blood pressure. Research articles show that succinate inhibits HIF-α prolyl hydroxylase and links TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis.
What is Succinate – Definition, Uses
Succinate is a salt form or ester form of succinic acid. Its chemical formula is C4H4O4. A recent research has proved that succinate increases the interleukin-1β production during inflammation acting as an intermediate. According to the outcomes of that study, lipopolysaccharides highly increase the level of succinate in the TCA cycle. Succinate is produced through the Glutamine – dependent aneplerosis and the GABA shunt pathway. Succinate dehydrogenase is a main enzyme of the TCA cycle. Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme leads accumulation of succinate. Then it inhibits HIF-αprolyl hydroxylases. The level of HIF-1α increases due to this process. So, succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis. This is important for further researches in the cancer field. There is a beta blocker called metoprolol succinate. It is an extended release drug used to treat high blood pressure. It stays in the circulatory system for about 24 hours after administration.
What is Tartrate – Definition, Uses
Tartrate is a chemical molecule derived from tartaric acid. Its chemical formula is C4H4O6. Tartaric acid is a chiral molecule. Because of this feature, it was a very famous molecule in the history of stereochemistry. Tartrate is a salt or ester form of tartaric acid. Sodium and potassium tartrates are widely used in the world as food additives. Tartrate was first discovered in 1794.
What is the difference between Tartrate and Succinate?
• Tartrate is derived from tartaric acid while succinate derived from succinic acid.
• When considering the chemical formulas of both substances, tartrate has two more hydrogen atoms than succinate.
• Succinate and tartrate are important ingredients of some drug molecules.
• Metoprolol succinate and metoprolol tartrate are two drugs belong the drug class beta blockers. Metoprolol tartrate treats hypertension and angina. Metoprolol succinate treats hypertension, angina and heart failures.
• Succinate form of metoprolol is an extended release drug and it plays its role in the circulatory system for 24 hours. However, the tartrate form of metoprolol does not appear in the blood stream for 24 hours because metoprolol tartrate is an immediate-release drug. So the half-life of tartrate is shorter than that of succinate.
• Excretion of tartrate is faster than that of that of succinate.
• Succinate is prescribed as a first line medication for congestive heart failure. Metoprolol tartrate is a better treatment for quick relief of heart attacks than succinate.
• Effect of succinate leads dehydration of the body. So, constipation and dry mouth are the reported common side effects of succinate. Tartrate does not produce the dehydrating effects but leads insomnia and sleep disturbances.
• Patients who have known allergies to the beta blockers should inform the doctor before taking the drug. Patients having heart diseases, breathing problems and blood circulation problems should inform the doctor about their bad histories.
Tartrate and succinate are different chemical molecules. These substances are used in different fields in the world for the different purposes. There are many commercial values of the both products. Both forms have important pharmacological effects to treat patients with cardiac diseases.