Agriculture vs Horticulture
Horticulture is discussed as a subdivision under the agriculture. Therefore, these two have similar characteristics in one hand. On the other hand, they are different to each other. This could be understood, through a comparison of the characteristic of these two.
The word agriculture is derived from Latin with the meaning of field cultivation. That means cultivation in a large scale. Agriculture includes cultivating crops, animal husbandry and cultivation of fungi. Agriculture was a turning point in the human civilization. Majority of people were engaged in agricultural activities until the industrial revolution. Drastic development in agriculture occurred with the green revolution in the early 20th century. Not only human being but also ants and termites practice agriculture. Food, raw materials, fiber and fuel are the main produce of agriculture. Some of the techniques of agriculture are transplanting, pruning, tilling, crop rotation, selective harvesting etc. These techniques are used to increase the productivity of a field.
Mono-cropping or mono-culture is practiced mainly in agriculture. Therefore, less biodiversity is observed in agriculture. Also, it weakens the ecological succession. Even though, environmental impacts are not considered in the conventional agricultural practices, it is of great concern in the modern agriculture. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and organic agriculture are popular at present.
Word horticulture is a combination of two Latin words hortus (garden) and cultura (cultivation). Horticulture is practiced in small scale with enclosed plots. Horticulture is mainly the crop cultivation. Horticultural practices apply the same techniques as in agriculture, but, unlike in the agriculture, it promotes the biodiversity and the ecological succession. Therefore, cultivation of diverse species at a small scale could be seen in horticultural practices. Cultural methods of pest controlling are applied in horticulture. There are two major groups in horticulture. They are ornamental group and edible group. Ornamental group includes Arboriculture, floriculture, and landscaping, while the edible group includes olericulture, pomology, and viticulture.
What is the difference between Agriculture and Horticulture?
• Both agricultural practices and horticultural practices use the same techniques.
• Agriculture includes crop cultivation as well as animal husbandry, while the concern of horticulture is mainly on crop cultivation.
• In agriculture, the main concern is about human consumption, and in horticulture, the concern is about consumption and ornamental purposes. Ornamental group includes Arboriculture, floriculture and landscaping, while edible group includes olericulture, pomology and viticulture.
• Agricultural practices are large scale farming, but horticultural practices are small scale and mainly farming in the garden.
• Since the concern of agricultural practices is about mono-cropping or mono-culture, it is at the primary stage of succession. Therefore, it will weaken the ecological succession and reduce biodiversity.
• Horticultural practices ensure the development of biodiversity and strengthen the ecological succession.
• Cultural methods of the weed control and the pest control are common in horticulture, but application of artificial or chemical herbicides or pesticides is common in agriculture.
• Perennial crop cultivation is common in horticulture, while annual crop cultivation is common in the agriculture.