Anaphase vs Telophase
Unlike the prokaryotes, eukaryotes have relatively large and more complex genome. Therefore, in order to produce new daughter cells, the presence of well-organized cell cycle is a crucial factor. The cell cycle can be divided into five phases; 1. G1 phase, which is the longest and primary growth phase of the cell, 2. S phase, the phase in which cell synthesis a replica of genome, 3. G2 phase, which is the second growth phase, 4. Mitosis, the phase in which nuclear division takes place and produce two identical daughter nuclei, and 5. Cytokinesis, which includes the division of cytoplasm and creation of new separate daughter cells. Since, mitosis consists of several events; it can be further divided into four phases; namely, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. The separation of sister chromatids and formation of daughter nuclear take place during anaphase and telophase.
Anaphase is the shortest of all the stages of mitosis. Up to this point, cohesion proteins held the sister chromatids at centromere. At the beginning of anaphase, centromeres split, and two sister chromatids start to separate from each other by removing the cohesion proteins simultaneously from all the chromosomes. Then microtubules pull each sister chromosomes rapidly toward the opposite poles of the cell. There are two movements take place in the cell during anaphase. These movements are often referred to as ‘Anaphase A’, during which kinetochores are pulled toward the poles, and ‘Anaphase B’, during which the poles move apart resulting elongated cells (if a flexible membrane surrounds the cell). These two movements take place simultaneously and are driven by the microtubules.
Telophase is the final stage of mitosis during which the reformation of daughter nuclei takes place. In telophase, the spindle apparatus dissembles and chromosomes are no longer attached to microtubules at the centromere. The chromosomes now begin to uncoil into more extended form that permits gene expression. Telophase is the reversal of the process of prophase, bringing the cell back to the interphase.
What is the difference between Anaphase and Telophase?
• Anaphase is followed by telophase.
• The duration of anaphase is shorter than that of telophase.
• Re-formation of daughter nuclei take place at telophase, whereas sister chromatids separate at anaphase.
• At the beginning of anaphase, there is only one group of sister chromatids arranged in the middle line of the cell. In contrast, at the beginning of telophase, there are two groups of sister chromatids at the poles of the cell.
• Spindle apparatus is present at anaphase, whereas it disappears at telophase.