The key difference between binary fission and budding is that the binary fission involves splitting of the parent cell into two parts by mitotic cell division followed by cytokinesis without the formation of an outgrowth or a bud while budding involves the formation of a bud or an outgrowth from the parent cell.
Asexual reproduction is one of the two types of reproduction in which offspring arises from a single parent. It does not involve two parents or fusion of two types of gametes or meiosis. Hence, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent and they are clones. Asexual reproduction is common among the prokaryotes and in some single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes. There are different asexual methods such as binary fission, budding, regeneration, parthenogenesis, etc.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Binary Fission
3. What is Budding
4. Similarities Between Binary Fission and Budding
5. Side by Side Comparison – Binary Fission vs Budding in Tabular Form
What is Binary Fission?
Binary fission is a simple asexual reproduction method that involves mitosis followed by the splitting of a parent individual into two equal halves. It is very common among prokaryotes mainly in bacteria and archaea. At the end of the binary fission process, two offsprings result which are genetically and phenotypically identical.
Binary fission initiates with the replication of the circular chromosome of prokaryotic genome. Then the chromosome segregation occurs and a new plasma membrane and a cell wall develop along the midline of the cell. Finally, the parent cell divides into two equally sized daughter cells by cytokinesis. So, DNA replication, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis are the main events of binary fission.
What is Budding?
Budding is another simple asexual reproduction method seen in fungi, certain plants, and in sponges like Hydra. During the budding process, from a single parent cell, new daughter cell arises while keeping the mother cell as it.
Budding initiates with the replication of the genome. Then a small outgrowth from the parent cell forms. It follows by the unequal cytokinesis. Finally a small daughter cell and the mother cell result. Daughter cell is genetically identical to the mother cell. But it is not similar in size. This daughter cell can remain attached to the mother cell or can detach from it and grow into a mature individual. Budding process is very prominent in baker’s yeast as shown in figure 02, and also in some worms such as Taenia, budding can be seen.
What are the Similarities Between Binary Fission and Budding?
- Binary fission and budding are two modes of asexual reproduction.
- These methods produce genetically identical offspring to that of the parent.
- Both are very simple and rapid methods.
- Mitosis and cytokinesis occur in both methods.
What is the Difference Between Binary Fission and Budding?
Binary fission is a type of fission that is shown by bacteria and archaea to the multiplication of cells. It is an asexual reproduction method. On the other hand, budding is a type of vegetative propagation which is shown by fungi and plants. It is also a type of asexual reproduction. Hence, the fundamental difference between binary fission and budding is that the binary fission is a type of fission while budding is a type of vegetative propagation. Furthermore, the binary fission results in two new daughter cells from a single parent cell splitting while budding results a mother cell and a daughter cell by the formation of an outgrowth from the parent cell. This is the key difference between binary fission and budding.
The below infographic presents more details on the difference between binary fission and budding in tabular form.
Summary – Binary Fission vs Budding
Binary fission and budding are two common asexual reproduction methods shown by organisms. Binary fission as the name implies, parent cell divides into two new daughter cells. It can be seen in prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea. On the other hand, budding results in a small bud or an outgrowth which is genetically identical to the mother cell. The daughter cell is not similar in size to the mother cell though it contains identical genomes. However, it can detach from the mother cell and mature into a new individual. Yeast cells adopt budding to form new yeast cells. This is the difference between binary fission and budding.