Cerebrum vs Cerebellum
The process of evolution of multi-cellularity in animals does require collecting information from the outer environment and transmitting them to the internal cells. To do that, they have to have a separate efficient system, thus evolved the nervous system in advanced multicellular animals. In many advanced animals, two systems have been developed for the control and coordination of various activities, namely, Nervous system, and Endocrine system. Nervous system of vertebrates can be divided into three major categories; Central Nervous system, Peripheral Nervous system and Autonomic Nervous system. Central Nervous system can be further divided into brain and spinal cord. Cerebrum and cerebellum are two major parts in the brain.
Cerebrum is the largest and the most prominent part of the human brain. It constitutes 4/5 of the entire brain weight with highly wrinkled cortex. Wrinkled cortex increases the surface area of the brain, thereby increasing the number of neurons. This makes human brain to be more efficient than other vertebrates.
Cerebrum is longitudinally divided into two major hemispheres, namely, left hemisphere and right hemisphere by the cerebral fissure. The two hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum, which is made up of nerve fibers. Each hemisphere can be further divided into four lobes by three deep fissures, namely, frontal lobe, partial lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. Central fissure, perieto-occipital fissure, and sylvian fissure demarcate above mentioned all four lobes.
Frontal lobe is associated with reasoning, planning, speech, movement, emotions and problem solving. Partial lobe is controlling certain movements, orientation, recognition and perception of stimuli. Occipital lobe is responsible for processing of visuals. Temporal lobe is associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech.
Cerebellum is the second largest brain of a human brain, located just below the posterior part of the cerebrum. It is the largest part of hind brain. Although it accounts for around 10% of the brain’s volume, it contains more than 50% of the total number of neurons in the brains.
The upper surface of the cerebellum is made up of gray matter called cerebellar cortex. Central part of the medulla is made up of white matter called arbor vitae. The cerebellum is also called ‘little brain’ because it has two hemispheres and wrinkled surface like the cerebrum. It is mainly associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture and balance. Cerebellum can be further divided into three lobes. Central lobe is called vermis and the two other lateral lobes are called lateral or cerebellar hemisphere.
What is the difference between Cerebrum and Cerebellum?
• Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain.
• Cerebrum is a part of fore brain while cerebellum is a part of hind brain.
• Cerebrum controls voluntary functions and seat of intelligence, will power, memory etc. Cerebellum coordinates voluntary functions and controls equilibrium.
• In the evolutionary progression, it is assumed that the cerebellum has evolved first, and it is much older than the cerebrum.
Cerebellum contains over 50% of the total number of neurons in the brain. Therefore, it has more neurons than in cerebrum.