Flowering vs Nonflowering Plants
Kingdom plantae consists of 5 divisions, division bryophyta, division pterophyta, division lycophyta, division cycadophyta and division anthophyta. Bryophytes, pterophytes, lycophytes and cycadophytes are non-flowering plants. Anthophytes are flowering plants.
Flowering Plants are the most advanced plants in the kingdom plantae. The dominant plant is the sporophyte, which may be dioecious or monoecious. The sporophyte is highly differentiated into stem, leaves and roots with well developed vascular tissues. They possess xylem containing vessels and phloem containing sieve tubes and companion cells. They also possess a highly differentiated reproductive organ, which is the flower. Anthophytes are heterosporous. The ovule develops within the ovary. The ovaries develop by the folding of megasporophylls. Folded megasporophylls are called carpals. When a carpel is formed the ovaries are enclosed within the carpel. They have well defined mechanical tissues. There is a well developed cuticle in the terrestrial plants. External water or internal fluids are not necessary for fertilization. Therefore, the spermatozoids are non motile. The pollen tube carries male nuclei or gametes towards the ovum. In anthophytes, there is double fertilization forming a diploid embryo and a triploid endosperm. A true seed is formed within a fruit.
Plants that do not possess the specialized reproductive organ, which is the flower, are called non-flowering plants. Those plants have evolved long before anthophytes. These plants are usually less complicated than flowering plants. However, there are many differences between flowering plants and non flowering plants. One of the main differences is that flowering plants do not have flowers or fruits. They do not have vessels in the xylem or sieve tubes and companion cells in the phloem. They require external water or at least internal fluids for fertilization. More importantly none of the non-flowering plants shows double fertilization.
What is the difference between Flowering and Non-flowering Plants?
• Flowering plants possess xylem containing vessels whereas non flowering plants do not contain vessels in the xylem.
• Flowering plants have phloem containing sieve tubes and companion cells, whereas non flowering plants do not contain sieve tubes or companion cells.
• Flowering plants possess a highly differentiated reproductive organ, which is the flower, and non-flowering plants do not produce flowers.
• In flowering plants, the ovule develops within the ovary, which is not the case in non flowering plants.
• External water or internal fluids are not necessary for fertilization in flowering plants, but non flowering plants, which are very primitive, need external water for fertilization and developed non flowering plants need at least internal fluids for fertilization.
• Therefore, the spermatozoids of flowering plants are non-motile whereas the spermatozoids in most non-flowering plants are motile.
• The pollen tubes in flowering plants carry male nuclei or gametes towards the ovum and which is not a process observed in non-flowering plants.
• In anthophytes, there is double fertilization forming a diploid embryo and a triploid endosperm and double fertilization does not occur in non-flowering plants.
• In flowering plants, a true seed is formed within a fruit and which is not seen in non-flowering plants.