Hydrocarbons vs Carbohydrates
Organic molecules are molecules that consist of carbons. Organic molecules are the most abundant molecules in living things on this planet. Main organic molecules in living things include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Nucleic acids like DNA contain genetic information of organisms. Carbon compounds like proteins make structural components of our bodies, and they make up enzymes which catalyze all the metabolic functions. Organic molecules provide us energy to carry out day to day functions.
Not only, we are made up of organic molecules, but there are many types of organic molecules around us, which we use every day for different purposes. The clothes we wear are composed of either natural or synthetic organic molecules. Many of the materials in our houses are also organic. Gasoline, which gives energy to automobiles and other machines, is organic. Most of the medicine we take, pesticides, and insecticides are composed of organic molecules. Thus, organic molecules are associated with nearly every aspect of our lives.
Hydrocarbons are organic molecules, which consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. The total oxidation of hydrocarbons results in only carbon dioxide and water. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic, and as the molecule gets larger, hydrophobicity also increases.
Hydrocarbons can be aromatic or aliphatic. They are mainly divided into few types such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. They also can be divided into two as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Saturated hydrocarbons can also be referred to as alkanes. They have the highest number of hydrogen atoms that a molecule can accommodate. All the bonds between carbon atoms and hydrogens are single bonds. Because of that the bond, rotation is allowed between any atoms. They are the simplest type of hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons have the general formula of CnH2n+2. These conditions slightly differ for the cycloalkanes because they have cyclic structures.
In unsaturated hydrocarbons, there are double or triple bonds between the carbon atoms. Since there are multiple bonds, the optimal number of hydrogen atoms is not there in the molecule. Alkenes and alkynes are examples for unsaturated hydrocarbons. Non cyclic molecules with double bonds have the general formula of CnH2n, and alkynes have the general formula of CnH2n-2.
Carbohydrates are a group of compounds which are defined as “polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones or substances that hydrolyze to yield polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.” Carbohydrates are the most abundant type of organic molecules on earth. They are the source of chemical energy for living organisms. Not only this, they serve as important constituents of tissues.
Carbohydrates are synthesized in plants and some micro organisms by photosynthesis. Carbohydrates got its’ name because it has the formula Cx(H2O)x and this looked like hydrates of carbon. Carbohydrate can be again categorized into three as monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrate type. Disaccharides and monosaccharides are readily soluble in water, and they are sweet in taste. They can be crystallized. Polysaccharides have different characteristics than other carbohydrates because they are polymers. They don’t have a sweet taste; some are partially soluble in water whereas some are insoluble. Like disaccharides, polysaccharides can be hydrolyzed.
Hydrocarbons vs Carbohydrates
- Hydrocarbons have carbon and hydrogen atoms only, whereas carbohydrates have oxygen or sometimes nitrogen atoms other than carbon and hydrogen.
- Hydrocarbons are nonpolar, and carbohydrates are polar molecules. Therefore, some carbohydrates readily dissolve in water whereas hydrocarbons are hydrophobic.