Hydronium Ion vs Hydrogen Ion
Hydrogen, which is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table, is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton or share the electron to make covalent bonds. Because of this ability, hydrogen is present in a large number of molecules, and it is a highly abundant element on the earth. Hydrogen has three isotopes named as protium-1H (no neutrons), deuterium-2H (one neutron) and tritium- 3H (two neutrons). Protium is the most abundant among the three having about 99% relative abundance. Hydrogen exists as a diatomic molecule (H2) in the gas phase, and it is a colorless, odorless gas. Furthermore, hydrogen is an extremely flammable gas, and it burns with a pale blue flame. Under normal room temperature hydrogen is not very reactive. However, in high temperatures it can react fast. H2 is in the zero oxidation state; therefore, it can act as a reducing agent, to reduce metal oxides, or chlorides and release metals. Hydrogen is used in chemical industries such as for ammonia production in Haber process. Liquid hydrogen is used as a fuel in rockets and vehicles.
The elements in the periodic table are not stable except the noble gases. Therefore, elements try to react with other elements, to gain the noble gas electron configuration to achieve stability. Likewise, hydrogen also has to get an electron to achieve the electron configuration of the noble gas, Helium. All nonmetals react with hydrogen, forming hydrogen ions. Ions are important in various ways. They conduct electricity in solutions. When different ions combined, compounds with new properties are generated. Especially hydrogen ions are important in maintaining acidity.
Hydrogen ion is also termed as hydron. It is made by the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen ion has a +1 charge (monovalent). The cation of the protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider as the protium, natural abundance of which is very high compared to other isotopes. This exists in aqueous solutions as hydronium ions (H3O+). Hydrogen ions are responsible for acidity, and the concentration of hydrogen ions is taken to calculate pH values. When hydrogen atoms react with other non metals hydrogen ions are formed, and these are released to the aqueous medium completely or partially when the molecule is dissolved.
Hydronium ion is denoted by the symbol H3O+. It is a positive ion, which is generated by protonation of water. When two water molecules are reacted a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion can be generated (auto dissociation of water). In pure water number of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions will be equal giving a pH value of 7.
What is the difference between Hydrogen Ion and Hydronium Ion?
• Hydrogen ion is shown by the symbol H+ and hydronium ion is denoted by the symbol H3O+.
• Hydrogen ion is obtained by removing an electron from the hydrogen atom. Since this is so reactive, in aqueous medium it combines with water, to form a hydronium ion.
• Hydronium ions are also generated by protonation of water.
• Hydronium ions are stable than hydrogen ions.