The key difference between hyperplasia and neoplasia is that the hyperplasia is a physiological (normal) response to a stimulus that leads to normal cell proliferation and enlargement of a tissue while neoplasia is an abnormal cell proliferation in a non-physiological manner, which is unresponsive to a stimulus.
Multicellular organisms are more complex and competent than unicellular organisms. They have different specialized cells, tissues and organs hence, they are able more fit to survive in the environment. However, cell division is a highly and tightly regulated process in multicellular organisms. Cells divide at the right time and at a right rate. Sometimes normal cell proliferation can go wrong and result in abnormal cell growth as well. As a result, it can lead to an unwanted cell mass or a tumour. Hyperplasia and neoplasia are two types of cell proliferation processes.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Hyperplasia
3. What is Neoplasia
4. Similarities Between Hyperplasia and Neoplasia
5. Side by Side Comparison – Hyperplasia vs Neoplasia in Tabular Form
What is Hyperplasia?
Hyperplasia is a type of cell proliferation that leads to an increase in the size of tissue. As a result of it, gross enlargement of an organ can be seen. However, this cell proliferation occurs under the normal conditions. It should not be confused with the benign neoplasia or a benign tumour. But cells appear normal, and this cell proliferation is a common preneoplastic response to a stimulus. When the stimulus stops, the cell proliferation can be stopped. Hence, it is reversible. Sometimes, hyperplasia is responsible for the increase of the cell size as well. But hyperplasia mainly involves increasing the number of cells in a tissue.
Due to different reasons, hyperplasia can occur. It is a harmless process that occurs in a particular tissue. As a result of hyperplasia, growth and multiplication of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breast can happen when responding to the stimulus; pregnancy. It is a normal process. Furthermore, cell proliferation in the basal layer of skin epidermis replaces skin loss, and it occurs as a result of hyperplasia.
What is Neoplasia?
Cell division is a normal yet a highly regulated process. However, things can go wrong in the regulation of cell division. Neoplasia is such a situation where abnormal cell proliferation occurs in a non –physiological manner unresponsive to a stimulus. It is a new growth that occurred due to an error in the cell division process. Cells divide fast, and it causes compression of neighbouring tissues since it occurs without coordinating with them. So it is a harmful process.
Even though the factor that caused the abnormal cell proliferation stops, it continues the cell proliferation. Hence it is not reversible. As an example, UV light can change a skin cell, and that particular cell may divide uncontrollably until it becomes a skin tumour even though the UV light has gone. Neoplasia can be benign or malignant. If the new growth or tumour can invade other surrounding tissues and spread, it is a malignant type. Cancer is a malignant type of neoplasia. Malignant neoplasm is another word for cancers. In benign neoplasia, cells are well differentiating, not invading the surrounding tissues and slowly growing. However, in malignant neoplasia, cells are poorly differentiating, invading the surrounding tissues and fast growing.
What are the Similarities Between Hyperplasia and Neoplasia?
- Hyperplasia and Neoplasia are cell proliferation processes.
- Both make the enlargement of tissues to happen.
What is the Difference Between Hyperplasia and Neoplasia?
Hyperplasia and neoplasia are two cell proliferation processes. Hyperplasia occurs under normal conditions while neoplasia is not. Hence, neoplasia, most of the times is harmful while hyperplasia is not harmful all the time. Neoplasia can lead to a cancer condition when the new growth invades and spreads into other tissues. The following infographic presents more details on the difference between hyperplasia and neoplasia in tabular form.
Summary – Hyperplasia vs Neoplasia
Hyperplasia is a type of cell proliferation that occurs as a response to a stimulus. Hence, it results in an enlargement of a tissue or organ under normal conditions. On the other hand, neoplasia is an abnormal new growth that can be benign or malignant. Cell proliferation is not reversible in neoplasia while it is reversible in hyperplasia. This is the difference between hyperplasia and neoplasia.
1.”Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy”By SchwarzeMelancholie (talk) – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2.”Intratubular germ cell neoplasia – high mag” By Nephron – Own work, (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia