Key Difference – Interphase vs Mitosis
Interphase and mitosis are two major phases of cell division. Interphase is followed by mitosis (M phase) in the cell cycle. The key difference between interphase and mitosis is that interphase is the longest phase of the cell cycle in which cell grows and replicates its DNA while mitosis is a short phase of the cell cycle in which cell nucleus turns into two nuclei that bear identical genome as the original nucleus to produce two new cells.
A cell spends most of the time of its life cycle in interphase. Interphase comes between two successive mitosis phases. During the interphase, the cell grows by accumulating nutrients, synthesizing proteins, making new organelles and replicating its DNA. At the end of the interphase, the cell becomes ready for the nucleus division and for making new cells. Mitosis is the second major phase of cell cycle in which nucleus divides into two nuclei that have identical genetic composition for the formation of two daughter cells.
What is Interphase?
Interphase is the longest phase of the cell cycle. It extends for a long time period (approximately 91% of the total time) of the cell cycle. Nucleolus and the nuclear membrane can be seen in the interphase.
Interphase has three sub stages namely G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase. G1 and G2 are two gap phases. During these two phases, cell grows, cell accumulates nutrients, the cell makes organelles and cell synthesize proteins. S phase is an important phase in which DNA replication occurs. At the end of the S phase, the cell contains two complete sets of DNA. Once the cell completes interphase, the cell enters into the mitosis phase (M phase).
What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the second major phase of the cell cycle. During the mitosis, cell nucleus turns into two nuclei and finally, cell devised into two cells. Mitosis extends for a short time period. There are four subphases of mitosis namely prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Mitosis ends with the cytoplasm division and becoming two daughter cells which are identical.
During the prophase, centrosomes migrate into two poles of the cell, nuclear membrane starts to disappear, microtubules starts to extend, chromosomes condense more and pair with each other and sister chromatids become visible. During the metaphase, chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate and microtubules connect with the centrosomes of the lined up chromosomes.
Metaphase is followed by anaphase in which sister chromatids split evenly and separate to migrate towards the two poles. Sister chromatids are pulled towards the two poles by microtubules. During the telophase, two new nuclei form and start to divide the cell contents into two sides of the cell. Cell cytoplasm divides to form two new cells. This process is known as cytokinesis. After cytokinesis, two identical cells will produce and new cells will continue in repeating the cell cycle.
What are the Similarities Between Interphase and Mitosis?
- Interphase and mitosis are two phases of cell cycle.
- Both are important events of a cell life cycle.
- Both interphase and mitosis are vital for multicellular organisms for growth and reproduction.
What is the Difference Between Interphase and Mitosis?
Interphase vs Mitosis
|Interphase is the preparatory phase that occurs in between two successive mitotic cell divisions.||Mitosis is the phase of nuclear division where the cell divides into new cells.|
|Interphase has three phases namely, G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase.||Mitosis has two stages namely karyokinesis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase) and cytokinesis.|
|Interphase occurs for a long time.||Mitosis occurs during a short time.|
|In interphase, chromosomes as less condensed.||During mitosis, chromosomes are highly condensed.|
|Appearance of Chromosomes|
|In interphase, chromosomes appear as thread like structures.||In mitosis, chromosomes appear as distinct rod like structures.|
|Two centrosomes are in the cell nucleus during the interphase.||Two centrosomes can be seen in two poles of the cell during the mitosis.|
|Nuclear membrane is present during the interphase.||Nuclear membrane disappears during the mitosis.|
|Cytokinesis does not occur in interphase.||During the mitosis, cytokinesis occurs.|
Summary – Interphase vs Mitosis
Interphase and mitosis are two major phase of cell cycle. Interphase prepares the cell for division by replicating its DNA and synthesizing necessary proteins and organelles by running for a longer period of time. Mitosis starts after the interphase and runs for a short period of time. However, actual cell division occurs during the mitosis. Nucleus turns into two nuclei and produces two daughter cells that are identical to parent cell during the mitosis. This is the difference between interphase and mitosis.
1.’Interphase’By Asa Gray – Gray’s Anantomy, (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia
2.’Mitosis Stages’ by Von Ali Zifan – Eigenes Werk; Used information from:Campbell Biology (10th Edition) by: Jane B. Reece & Steven A. Wasserman.and Nature.com., (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia