Key Difference – Interphase vs Prophase
Interphase and prophase are two stages of cell cycle. The key difference between interphase and prophase is that a cell spends a lot of time in interphase undergoing protein synthesis, DNA replication, and growth while the cell spends a short time in prophase by undergoing condensation of chromatin, pairing of homologous chromosomes and spindle fiber formation.
The cell is the structural and functional unit of living organisms. It is a microscopic structure that consists of a cytoplasm, nucleus, organelles and vacuole surrounded by a semipermeable membrane. Cells divide and make new cells in multicellular organisms during the growth and development. The series of events which a cell undergoes from birth (formation) to produce new daughter cells is known as cell cycle or cell division. There are two types of cell cycles; mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis produces two new daughter cells having same genetic material as the parent possesses. Meiosis occurs during the sex cell formation, and it produces four daughter cells that contain a half number of chromosomes (haploid cells). Cell cycles are divided into several phases that is distinct functionally from each other. Interphase and mitotic phase (M phase) are two major phases of the cell cycle. M phase is again divided into four main phases; prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Interphase consists of three main stages; G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase. During the interphase, cell prepares for division. During the prophase, chromatin condenses by making chromosomes to pair with each other and spindle fibers form at two poles.
What is Interphase?
Interphase is one of the major phases of cell cycle. It is the phase where a cell prepares for the division and makes daughter cells. Approximately 91% of the total time of cell cycle goes for interphase. Interphase can be subdivided into three phases namely G1 phase (gap 1 phase), S phase and G2 (gap 2 phase) phase. Interphase is followed by M phase of the cell cycle in which other sub-phases are found namely prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
G1 phase is the first growth phase and the first sub-phase of the interphase. During the G1 phase, cell resumes its higher rate of biosynthetic activity, cell synthesizes proteins, cell increases the number of organelles and cell grows in size. G1 phase is followed by S phase. During the S phase, DNA replicates (duplicates). All the chromosomes replicate having two sister chromatids.
G2 phase is the third phase of interphase. It is also known as second growth phase. During G2 phase, proteins synthesis occurs, and cell shows a rapid growth to initiate cell division. And also during the G2 phase, microtubules start to form spindle fibers. After G2 phase, interphase completed and the cell becomes ready for the nuclear division to make new daughter cells.
What is Prophase?
Prophase is the first phase of mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Prophase runs for a short period of time. Prophase begins after a G2 phase of the interphase. During the prophase, chromatin condenses, and nucleolus disappears. Chromosome condensation can be visualized by the various stains during the prophase.
Moreover, during the prophase, movement of centrosomes occurs, and the formation of the spindle fibers starts. In mitotic cell division, only one prophase appears while in meiosis two prophases are seen. Prophase is followed by the metaphase.
What are the Similarities Between Interphase and Prophase?
- Both Interphase and Prophase are two stages of cell division.
- Both Interphase and Prophase phases are important in multicellular organisms.
What is the Difference Between Interphase and Prophase?
Interphase vs Prophase
|Interphase is one of the major phases of the cell cycle that prepares the cell for initiation of cell division.||Prophase is the first phase of mitotic (M) phase of the cell division in which chromatin of the cell condenses; homologous chromosomes make pairs and spindle fibers|
|During the interphase, proteins synthesize, DNA replicates, the cell grows in size and it accumulates nutrients.||During the prophase, chromatin condenses, nucleus disappears, centrioles migrate to poles and spindle fibers|
|A cell spends a lot of time in interphase.||A cell spends a short time in prophase.|
|Interphase has three sub phases; G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase.||Prophase has no sub phases.|
|Cell growth occurs in interphase.||Cell growth stops in prophase.|
|Interphase is followed by prophase.||Prophase is followed by metaphase.|
Summary – Interphase vs Prophase
Interphase and prophase are two phases of the cell cycle of multicellular organisms. Interphase is the first major phase of the cell cycle that consists of three main stages namely G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase. A cell spends a longer time in interphase due to the preparation of the cell for nuclear division and making new cells. Prophase is the first phase of mitotic phase, and it starts after the interphase. During the prophase, the cell stops the cell growth and initiates the cell division. Chromatin condenses, and spindle fibers form in this phase. This is the difference between interphase and prophase.