The key difference between mitosis and binary fission is that mitosis is a type of nuclear division that occurs in eukaryotic organisms in order to produce two identical daughter cells from a parent cell while binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction/cell division that occurs in prokaryotic organisms in order to multiply and increase their number.
All life forms of prokaryotes and eukaryotes need to have some means of multiplying their core building unit; “cell” regardless of the complexity of their cellular organization. Hence, this process is vital for the growth and regeneration in multi-cellular organisms, as well as for asexual reproduction in some unicellular organisms. In this regard, the processes of both, mitosis and binary fission, apparently have a similar outcome of producing two units from one. However, a careful, in-depth analysis into both the processes reveals a striking difference between mitosis and binary fission.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Mitosis
3. What is Binary Fission
4. Similarities Between Mitosis and Binary Fission
5. Side by Side Comparison – Mitosis vs Binary Fission in Tabular Form
What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the process of producing two genetically identical diploid nuclei out of one nucleus in eukaryotic cells. At the end of this process, cytokinesis occurs. Cytokinesis is the process that divides the cell into two cells by dividing the cytoplasm and cell organelles. Mitosis and cytokinesis collectively compose the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. The cell prepares a copy of its chromosomes/genetic material within the nuclei before it undergoes mitosis.
In fact, mitosis is a complex process which has several sub-phases according to the events that occur inside the cell. During prophase, which is the first phase of mitosis, chromosomes condense, and mitotic spindle made out of microtubules begins to appear, connecting the opposite poles of the cell. Afterwards, during prometaphase, nuclear membrane disappears, and microtubular strands of the mitotic spindle attach themselves to each of the chromatids at the centromere.
Consequently, the chromosomes align themselves in metaphase plate, which is a plane perpendicular to the spindle at the middle of the cell in the metaphase. Sister chromatids get separate at the centromere in the anaphase, and the cell will have its two copies of genetic material separated. Telophase concludes mitosis by regenerating nuclear membrane around each set of genetic material, producing two separate nuclei. Eventually, cytokinesis will produce two genetically identical daughter cells.
What is Binary Fission?
Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction that utilizes by unicellular organisms in order to multiply and increase their generations. It produces genetically identical offspring from parent cells. As the name suggests, from one cell, it produces two cells by dividing the cell into two equal parts. Generally prokaryotes, mainly bacteria carry out binary fission and increase their numbers within a small period.
At the beginning of the binary fission, genetic material replicates and becomes doubled. Then, each copy simply attaches to the cell membrane at two different places. Next, the cytoplasmic division takes place by separating the two copies ultimately resulting in genetically identical, two separate cells.
What are the Similarities Between Mitosis and Binary Fission?
- Mitosis and binary fission are types of cell division processes that occur in living organisms.
- Also, both processes produce genetically identical two daughter cells from a single parent cell.
- Besides, cytokinesis is a common process for both processes.
- Furthermore, DNA replication occurs in both mitosis and binary fission.
What is the Difference Between Mitosis and Binary Fission?
Mitosis is one of the two major types of cell division occurs in eukaryotic multicellular organisms. On the other hand, binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction method that carries out by unicellular prokaryotic organisms. Therefore, this is the key difference between mitosis and binary fission. Also, another notable difference between mitosis and binary fission is that, unlike the binary fission, mitosis is a complex process that has several phases.
Moreover, during the mitosis, specialized structures such as mitotic spindle will be formed to assist in the process. But in binary fission, no such structures are made. Hence, it is another difference between mitosis and binary fission. Furthermore, an additional difference between mitosis and binary fission is that, during the mitosis, each DNA copy attaches to the mitotic spindle, but in binary fission copies of DNA do not attach directly to the cell membrane. Besides, one more difference between mitosis and binary fission is that the mitosis involves only the division of the nuclei, whereas binary fission involves the division of genetic material as well as the cytoplasm.
Below infographic provides more information on the difference between mitosis and binary fission.
Summary – Mitosis vs Binary Fission
Mitosis and binary fission are two similar processes that result genetically identical two daughter cells from a parent cell. However, mitosis takes place in multicellular eukaryotic organisms while the binary fission takes place in unicellular prokaryotic organisms. Furthermore, mitosis includes several different phases while binary fission is a simple process that has no sub-phases. In mitosis, spindle formation, attaching centromeres with spindle fibres, etc., occur while such events are not taking place in the binary fission. Thus, this is the summary of the difference between mitosis and binary fission.