The key difference between reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocation is that reciprocal translocation is the exchange of broken DNA segments between two nonhomologous chromosomes, while nonreciprocal translocation is the transferring of a chromosome segment from one chromosome to another nonhomologous chromosome.
Translocation is a type of chromosomal rearrangement. This arrangement can be intrachromosomal (within the same chromosome) or interchromosomal (between two chromosomes). Nonhomologous chromosomes exchange their chromosome segments frequently. Furthermore, it creates two chromosomes that are genetically distinct from native chromosomes. Reciprocal translocation and nonreciprocal translocations are the two main types of translocations. Reciprocal translocation is the exchange of broken chromosomal segments between two nonhomologous chromosomes while nonreciprocal translocation is a type of translocation in which genetic material transfers from one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Reciprocal Translocation
3. What is Nonreciprocal Translocation
4. Similarities Between Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Translocation
5. Side by Side Comparison – Reciprocal vs Nonreciprocal Translocation in Tabular Form
What is Reciprocal Translocation?
Reciprocal translocation refers to the exchange of chromosome segments between nonhomologous chromosomes. In reciprocal translocation, broken segments of chromosomes exchange between two chromosomes that do not belong to the homologous pair. For example, a specific reciprocal translocation takes place between chromosomes 1 and 19, which are not homologous to each other. However, two translocated chromosomes originate at the end of the reciprocal translocation. Furthermore, the places of centromere and the sizes of chromosomes may vary greatly due to reciprocal translocation.
In balanced reciprocal translocation, there is no apparent loss of genetic material. Therefore, reciprocal translocations do not normally cause diseases. However, it may cause infertility problems and miscarriages.
What is Nonreciprocal Translocation?
Nonreciprocal translocation is the transferring of a chromosome segment from one chromosome to a different nonhomologous chromosome. When a chromosome segment separates from the first chromosome, it loses the genetic material. On the other hand, the other chromosome receives a chromosome segment containing extra genetic material. Due to receiving a chromosome segment, it becomes longer than the normal size. The chromosome which has transferred the chromosome segment becomes shorter.
Furthermore, the key factor in nonreciprocal translocation is that there is no exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes. It is a way of transferring a chromosome segment.
What are the Similarities Between Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Translocation?
- Reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocation are the two main types of translocations.
- Both types are chromosomal rearrangements.
- Moreover, they lead to changes in chromosome structure.
What is the Difference Between Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Translocation?
Reciprocal translocation occurs when two nonhomologous chromosomes exchange their genetic materials between each other; it is the most typical type of translocation. Non-reciprocal translocation, on the other hand, is a one-way transfer of a chromosomal segment from one chromosome to another nonhomologous chromosome. So, this is the key difference between reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocation.
Below infographic gives more description of the difference between reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocation.
Summary – Reciprocal vs Nonreciprocal Translocation
In summary, the reciprocal translocation and nonreciprocal translocation are the two main types of translocations. During reciprocal translocation, two nonhomologous chromosomes exchange their chromosomal segments with each other. In contrast, one chromosome transfers its broken segment to a nonhomologous chromosome in nonreciprocal translocation. So, this is the key difference between reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocation.
1. “Chromosomal Translocation.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 26 June 2019, Available here.
2. Griffiths, Anthony JF. “Translocations.” An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th Edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, Available here.
1. “Figure 13 03 09” By CNX OpenStax – (CC BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Schematic illustration of chromosomal aberrations” By Philippe Hupé – Emmanuel Barillot, Laurence Calzone, Philippe Hupé, Jean-Philippe Vert, Andrei Zinovyev, Computational Systems Biology of Cancer Chapman & Hall/CRC Mathematical & Computational Biology, 2012 (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia