The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. It has different components. Cell organelles play important roles in eukaryotic cells. However, prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles. But, these cells have ribosomes. Ribosomes are essential for protein synthesis in the cells. The centrosome is another eukaryotic cell organelle that is important in cell division. Thus, this article focuses on highlighting the difference between ribosome and centrosome.
What is Ribosome?
A ribosome is an important cell organelle present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It is in charge of protein synthesis in living organisms. Translation of mRNA occurs in the ribosomes. Structurally, the ribosome is a complex of RNA and proteins.
Generally, a ribosome consists of two RNA-protein complexes known as small subunit and large subunit. Prokaryotic ribosomes have 70S with 30S small subunits and 50S large subunits. On the other hand, eukaryotic ribosomes have 80S with 40S small subunits and 60S large subunits.
One cell contains numerous ribosomes. Normally, ribosomes freely float in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Some eukaryotic ribosomes occur attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is Centrosome?
The centrosome is a cell organelle essential for cell division. It is the major microtubule organizing centre of the cell. Structurally, the centrosome is 1 µm in size, and it is not a membrane-bound cell organelle. Also, a dividing cell has two centrosomes at two poles. Moreover, a single centrosome consists of one or two centrioles. Hence, each mitotic cell generally has two centrosomes containing four centrioles. Here, the centriole is a small cylindrical organelle present in most eukaryotic cells. They contain tubulin protein as their main protein. Besides, the cylindrical structure of the centriole comprises several groups of microtubules that are in 9 + 3 structure. When two centrioles are arranged perpendicular to each other, it forms a centrosome. The centrosome works as the main centre of microtubule arrangement, and it regulates the progression of the cell cycle.
During cell division, centrioles play a significant role by determining the plane in which the nuclear division takes place within the cell. Furthermore, centrosomes form spindle fibres to attach with the centromeres of the chromosomes.
What are the Similarities Between Ribosome and Centrosome?
- Both ribosome and centrosome are cell organelles.
- Moreover, they carry out very important functions in living cells.
What is the Difference Between Ribosome and Centrosome?
The ribosome is the main site of protein synthesis in a cell while the centrosome is responsible for cell division. So, this is the key difference between ribosome and centrosome. Also, ribosomes are found throughout the cytoplasm of the cell while centrosomes are present near the nucleus. Therefore, we can consider this also as a difference between ribosome and centrosome.
Moreover, a further difference between ribosome and centrosome is that the ribosome has two complexes of RNA and proteins, while centrosome has two centrioles.
The below infographic provides more details regarding the difference between ribosome and centrosome.
Summary – Ribosome vs Centrosome
Ribosome and centrosome are two vital cell organelles. Ribosome carries out protein synthesis in a cell. On the other hand, the centrosome is responsible for cell division of animal cells. In summary, this is the key difference between ribosome and centrosome. Also, ribosome contains two complexes of RNA and proteins, while centrosome contains two centrioles. Furthermore, ribosomes are scattered throughout the cytoplasm while centrosome is found near the nucleus. Besides, ribosomes appear as small dots while centrosomes are barrel-shaped.
1. “Ribosome.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 6 Sept. 2016, Available here.
2.“Centrosome.” Centrosome – an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics, Available here.
3. “Biology for Majors I.” Lumen, Available here.