rRNA vs Ribosomes | ribosomal RNA vs Ribosomes
rRNA and ribosomes are two different entities that work together in cellular functions. That means the two entities should have different characteristics, yet those may not be very familiar for many of you. Therefore, it would be of great importance to present the characteristics of those, and discuss the exhibited differences between rRNA and ribosomes.
rRNA is the standard, shortened form for the ribosomal RNA. rRNA is connected always with ribosome, and they are so named. In other words, rRNA is the RNA component of a ribosome.
The basic functions of rRNA are associated with protein synthesis inside a cell, and those are of much importance. rRNA governs the decoding of messenger RNA into amino acids with its mechanism. In addition, rRNA interacts with transfer RNA during translation, which is the conversion of a base sequence of a nucleic acid (nucleotide sequence) into a protein molecule.
Two subunits have been identified in ribosomal RNA known as the large subunit (LSU) and the small subunit (SSU), and those have been formed in association with the ribosomes. During protein synthesis, the mRNA strand is read at the small subunit while the protein molecule is formed and progressed at the large subunit. However, it would be interesting to know that the messenger RNA strand is progressed through the two subunits, often called sandwiched between SSU and LSU, while the formation of peptide bond in the protein molecule is catalysed by the ribosome. In addition, rRNAs being nucleic acids with nucleotide sequences, those could be regarded as reserves of genetic material.
Ribosomes are amongst the smallest organelles in a cell with a size of about 20 nanometres. Despite its small size compared to other organelles, it is composed of complex and large molecules of RNA and proteins, which are playing vital roles in the process of protein synthesis. Those complex RNA and proteins are called ribonucleic proteins.
Ribosomes are present in all the living cells including both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Those are predominantly found attached to RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) and rarely as free organelles in the cytoplasm. When they are associated with RER, the attachment is not permanent as it is in a state of attached and detached with RER surface.
The main function of ribosomes is to catalyse the formation of the peptide bond between two amino acids using the messenger RNA nucleotide sequence. In fact, the ribosome binds with the messenger RNA strand and uses it as a template to understand the correct sequence of amino acids in each protein molecule. Thus, its function in protein synthesis is vital. It would be interesting to notice that there may be more than one ribosome in function at a particular time in identifying the nucleotide sequences of messenger RNA to determine the corresponding amino acid sequence. Ribosomes form and association with RNA to for the two subunits of rRNA and those are known as small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU).
What is the difference between rRNA and Ribosomes?
• rRNA is a type of nucleic acid whereas ribosome is an organelle.
• rRNA is made up of nucleotides while ribosomes are made up of RNA and proteins called ribonucleic proteins.
• rRNA could be sometimes used as a reserve of genetic material but not the ribosomes.