Rutherford vs Bohr
Earnest Rutherford and Niels Bohr are two prominent scientists who contributed to the field of physics greatly. Rutherford and Bohr proposed two different models for the atomic structure. The Bohr model and the Rutherford model are very important in understanding the nature of an atom. It is vital to have a proper understanding in the Bohr atomic model and the Rutherford atomic model in order to excel in fields such as atomic structure, quantum mechanics, chemistry and other fields that have usages of these theories. In this article, we are going to discuss the atomic models of Bohr and Rutherford, similarities between Bohr model and Rutherford model, the evolution and practical results of Bohr model and Rutherford model, and finally the difference between Bohr model and Rutherford model.
Earnest Rutherford is one of the most prominent scientists who contributed to the modern atomic model. The works of Rutherford led to the finding of the nucleus. His most important experiment was the gold foil experiment, which is also known as the Geiger-Marsden experiment. In this experiment, a very thin gold foil was bombarded with a beam of alpha particles. The expected results were that all the alpha particles would pass the foil without any disturbance. But the observations showed otherwise. About 1 particle from 7000 deviated from the original path. More astonishingly, about 1 from 50000 alpha particles was reflected back to the source. “It was almost as incredible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you” said Rutherford. The conclusion of these results was that most of the mass of the atom and all of the positive charge of the atom is concentrated to a single point in space. This is known as the Rutherford model. The electrons were revolving around the central mass.
Niels Bohr is the father of the modern quantum mechanics. The Rutherford model suggested the positive charge of the atom was concentrated inside the center of the atom. However, it did not give any information about the motion of the electrons. Bohr model suggested that the electrons of an atom traveled in circular orbits around the central nucleus. He suggested that the electrons revolved around the nucleus same way the planets revolved around the sun. The Bohr model utilized the Rydberg formula to explain the spectral lines of hydrogen atoms. The Bohr model suggested that the orbits of electrons are discrete rather than continuous. The electrons can have only specific amounts of energy. The radius of the orbit depended on the amount of energy the electron had.
What is the difference between Bohr and Rutherford?
• Rutherford model suggested a new look into the nature of the nucleus, whereas the Bohr model suggested a new look into the mechanics of electrons.
• Bohr model utilized the existing knowledge of the nucleus derived from the Rutherford model.
• Rutherford model is based on the experiments Rutherford conducted in collaboration with Geiger and Marsden. The Bohr model is based on existing experimental results.