Spermatogenesis vs Spermiogenesis
An important objective in the life of all the living beings is the reproduction and making sure that their kind will survive in the future. In order to reach that objective successfully, the sexual reproduction is instrumental, and the gametes from males and females are mixed with each other to produce offspring. Spermatogenesis is the basic mean of producing the male gametes, and spermiogenesis is a stage of the main process of production.
Spermatogenesis is a serial event that finally produces millions of completely matured fast swimming sperms from primary sperm cells. Each primary cell undergoes different stages and finally becomes a complete sperm cell with a wagging tail and a piercing acrosome. Spermatocytogenesis, Spermatidogenesis, Spermiogenesis, and Spermiation are the four main steps of spermatogenesis. Spermatocytogenesis starts from the diploid spermatogonium cells, and those become primary spermatocytes at the end of this stage after undergoing through mitosis. Spermatidogenesis is the second stage of the main process where primary spermatocytes produced from the previous step become secondary spermatocytes after going through meiosis – 1. The second phase of this step produces haploid spermatids through meiosis – 2 from secondary spermatocytes. Spermiogenesis is a very crucial stage of spermatogenesis where the facilitation takes place, and it proceeds to the final stage of spermiation. Finally, the well-developed and fully functional sperms are produced inside the male reproductive system. The initial stages of spermatogenesis occur in the testes and then the spermatids progress to the epididymis for spermiogenesis. In brief, the genetic composition of the primary sperm cells change from diploid to haploid status during spermatogenesis, and it is a process that takes place in stages. The number of cells increase due to mitosis and meiosis occur during the process.
Spermiogenesis is one of the very crucial steps in spermatogenesis, and it is the time when sperms are facilitated by organelles, and form the characteristic structure of each sperm. The resulted spermatids from the previous stage are more or less circular in shape, and each contains the genetic materials with centrioles, mitochondria, and Golgi bodies. The arrangement of those organelles are arranged in such a way that the sperm would be able to penetrate all the obstacles could be conquered. The acrosome is formed at one end of the cell by secreting enzymes from the Golgi bodies and the mitochondria are concentrated at the other end of the cell forming the mid piece. The Golgi complex then covers the condensed genetic materials and the acrosome. Tail formation is the next phase of spermiogenesis, and one of the centrioles is extended to become the tail of the sperm. It is interesting to know that the tail is oriented towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. During this stage, the genetic materials do not undergo changes but becomes condensed and protected. The shape of the cell is changed into more like an arrow with a long tail and a defined head.
What is the difference between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis?
• Spermatogenesis is the whole process of sperm production while spermiogenesis is the last major stage of the whole process.
• Spermatogenesis changes the genetic materials from diploid to haploid but spermiogenesis does not.
• The number of cells is drastically increased in spermatogenesis, but there is no change in the number of cells after spermiogenesis.
• Specialization and maturation of sperms take place in spermiogenesis, but not in other steps of the spermatogenesis.
• Spermatogenesis does not change the shape of the cells except in spermiogenesis.