The key difference between activation and differentiation of THP1 cells is that the activation of THP1 cells is non-specific, but differentiation of THP1 cells is a specific process that differentiates the cell into a macrophage-like cell.
THP1 is a monocytic cell line derived from monocytic leukemia patients. The THP1 cell is a large and circular single cell. These cells are used to test leukemia cells lines in immunocytochemical tests of immunohistochemistry and protein-protein interactions. THP1 cells are also popular as in vitro cancer cell models and models to study the monocyte-macrophage physiological processes since they consist of monocytic properties. The activation and differentiation processes are important in determining the behavior of the cell and its properties.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Activation of THP1 Cells
3. What is Differentiation of THP1 Cells
4. Similarities – Activation and Differentiation of THP1 Cells
5. Activation vs Differentiation of THP1 Cells in Tabular Form
What is Activation of THP1 Cells?
The activation of THP1 cells occurs after differentiation into macrophage-like cells. This happens as a result of an inflammatory stimulus by changing their phenotypes to an activation state which alters the expression of inflammation-related genes. One way of activating THP1 cells is through the metabolic activation of hepatotoxic drugs. The activation of THP1 cells is important in peripheral blood monocyte models. Usually, activated THP1, which is a derivative of THP-1 cell line, demonstrates features of activated macrophages in the absence of stimulators. The THP-1 cell line, once activated through the addition of stimulators, develop macrophage functions. A-THP-1 is the activated form of THP-1 cell line. In certain research models, THP-1 cell line presents the characteristics of activated macrophages when the stimulators are not present. Such conditions are yet to be refined. The extent of activation of THP-1 cells directly affects the growth rates of the macrophage-like cells. A-THP-1 cell line is a viable alternative to THP-1 cells.
What is Differentiation of THP1 Cells?
THP1 cells differentiate into macrophage-like cells, which show similar properties to mature macrophages. This takes place prior to the activation phase. These macrophages are adherent and well spread. THP1 cells are usually differentiated through the addition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This differentiation process occurs through the activation of protein kinase with phorbol-12-myristate-13acetate (PMA). This results in cells with increased adherence and loss of proliferative activity. This causes an increment in phagocytosis of latex beads and an increase in the expression of CD14 receptors.
Differentiation of THP1 cells is an excellent model for the identification of pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-mediated gene activation. Lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. This causes tissue injuries and shock by the activation of monocytes and macrophages and also by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1,IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Certain experimental procedures follow the addition of recombinant human gamma interferon (IFN-γ) to induce differentiation of the THP1 cell line.
What are the Similarities Between Activation and Differentiation of THP1 Cells?
- These processes occur at the same cell line of THP-1.
- Both activation and differentiation of THP-1 are important for certain research trials.
- Activation and differentiation of THP-1 cells are used to test leukemia cell lines, immunocytochemical tests of immunohistochemistry and protein-protein interactions.
What is the Difference Between Activation and Differentiation of THP1 Cells?
Activation of THP1 cells is a non-specific process whilst differentiation of THP-1 cells is specific mediated through cytokines. So, this is the key difference between activation and differentiation of THP1 cells. THP1 cells are differentiated into macrophage-like cells. Activation causes the development of macrophage functions to the differentiated THP1 cells. THP1 cells are commonly activated by hepatotoxic drugs and differentiated by PMA and IFN-γ.
The following table lists the differences between activation and differentiation of THP1 cells for side by side comparison.
Summary – Activation vs Differentiation of THP1 Cells
THP1 cell is monocytic cell line in humans derived from monocytic leukemia patients. Activation and differentiation to THP1 cells occur due to various stimulants. Differentiation causes THP1 cells to differentiate into macrophage-like cells. The macrophage functions are induced to these cells through activation. The activation of THP1 cells is not specific. Usually, they are activated by hepatotoxic drugs. Meanwhile, THP1 cells differentiate by specific cytokines to form macrophage-like cells. Thus, this is the summary of what is the difference between activation and differentiation of THP1 cells.
1. “Isoforms of Jun Kinase are differentially expressed and activated in human monocyte/macrophage (THP-1) CELLS.”Pubmed.
2. Richter, E., Ventz, K., Harms, M., Mostertz, J., & Hochgräfe, F. “Induction of Macrophage function in Human Thp-1 cells is associated with rewiring of MAPK signaling and activation Of Map3k7 (TAK1) protein kinase.” Frontiersin.org .