The key difference between DNA and RNA isolation is that DNA isolation is a procedure where a type of nucleic acid called DNA is extracted from a biological cell, while RNA isolation is a procedure where a type of nucleic acid called RNA is extracted from a biological cell.
Nucleic acid isolation is the starting point in a vast array of downstream applications. The high quality of nucleic acids in the starting samples is a key factor for the success of subsequent downstream applications. Nucleic acid isolation could be defined as a series of steps to obtain nucleic acid in a purity sample that can be used for different downstream application steps. The purpose of nucleic acid extraction is to disintegrate the cell membrane and achieve the maximum elimination of lipids and proteins to obtain pure nucleic acids such as DNA or RNA.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is DNA Isolation
3. What is RNA Isolation
4. Similarities – DNA and RNA Isolation
5. DNA vs RNA Isolation in Tabular Form
6. Summary – DNA vs RNA Isolation
What is DNA Isolation?
DNA isolation is a routine procedure where a type of nucleic acid called DNA is extracted from a biological cell. DNA isolation is performed by extracting DNA from blood, frozen tissue samples, and paraffin tissue blocks. There are three main steps in DNA isolation, including cell lysis, extracting DNA, and precipitation. In cell lysis, the cells in a sample are separated from each other often by physical means such as grinding or vortexing and put into a solution containing salt. Usually, the positively charged sodium ions in the salt helps protect the negatively charged phosphate groups that run along the backbone of the DNA. Later, a detergent is added to break down the lipids in the cell membrane and nuclei, which release DNA as these membranes are disrupted.
DNA extraction is performed to get a clean sample of DNA. Often, a protease enzyme is added to degrade DNA-associated proteins and other cellular proteins. Moreover, some of the cellular debris can be removed by filtering the sample. Finally, the DNA is precipitated by using alcohol. Furthermore, if there is a lot of DNA, a stingy white precipitate at the end of the procedure can be observed.
What is RNA Isolation?
RNA isolation is a procedure where a type of nucleic acid called RNA is extracted from a biological cell. This procedure is often complicated by the presence of ribonuclease enzymes in cells and tissues that degrade RNA. Several methods are used in molecular biology to isolate RNA from samples, such as guanidinium-thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.
RNA isolation usually consists of several steps, including cell lysis and homogenization, quenching of biochemical processes, nucleic acid partitioning, RNA retrieval, crude purification, and assessing the quality of RNA. The filter paper-based lysis and elution method have a high throughput capacity in RNA extraction. Furthermore, RNA extraction in liquid nitrogen by using a mortar and pestle is also a very useful method as it prevents ribonuclease activity.
What are the Similarities Between DNA and RNA Isolation?
- DNA and RNA isolation are two types of nucleic acid isolation procedures.
- Both procedures have similar basic steps, such as cell lysis, extraction, and purification.
- These procedures isolate important nucleic acid types that have a number of downstream applications.
- They are carried out in laboratory setups.
- They can be performed using manufactured kits.
What is the Difference Between DNA and RNA Isolation?
In DNA isolation, a type of nucleic acid called DNA is extracted from a biological cell, while in RNA isolation, a type of nucleic acid called RNA is extracted from a biological cell. Thus, this is the key difference between DNA and RNA isolation. Furthermore, the DNA isolation is normally carried out at around pH 7 to 8 whereas RNA isolation is normally carried out at around pH 4.5.
The below infographic presents the differences between DNA and RNA isolation in tabular form for side by side comparison.
Summary – DNA vs RNA Isolation
DNA and RNA isolation are two types of nucleic acid isolation procedures. DNA isolation is a procedure during which DNA is extracted from a biological cell. RNA isolation is a procedure during which RNA is extracted from a biological cell. So, this is the key difference between DNA and RNA isolation.
1. “DNA Extraction.” Science Learning Hub.
2. “RNA Isolation.” An Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.
1. “DNA Extraction” By Joo Nath – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “RNA Extraction Droplet Array” By Unknown author – (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
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