The key difference between tuberculosis and paratuberculosis is that tuberculosis is a contagious respiratory infection of humans caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while paratuberculosis is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Mycobacterium is a genus having over 190 bacterial species in the phylum of Actinomycetota and the family Mycobacteriaceae. The species in this genus are usually aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, and Gram-positive bacteria. This genus is comprised of pathogens such as M. tuberculosis (tuberculosis) and M. leprae (leprosy), which cause human infections, and M. paratuberculosis (paratuberculosis), which causes ruminant infections. Therefore, tuberculosis and paratuberculosis are two infectious diseases caused by bacterial species belonging to the genus Mycobacterium.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Tuberculosis
3. What is Paratuberculosis
4. Similarities – Tuberculosis and Paratuberculosis
5. Tuberculosis vs Paratuberculosis in Tabular Form
6. Summary – Tuberculosis vs Paratuberculosis
What is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious respiratory infection in humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of this disease. Tuberculosis is divided into two stages: latent TB and active TB. There are no symptoms of latent TB. But active TB shows symptoms such as coughing for weeks, coughing up blood or mucus, chest pain or pain while breathing, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, fever, night sweats, chills and loss of appetite, back pain, and blood in the urine. The risk factors may include HIV/AIDS, diabetes, severe kidney disease, some cancers, chemotherapy, drugs (used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), drugs used to treat diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and psoriasis, low body weight due to malnutrition and very young or advanced age.
Moreover, tuberculosis can be diagnosed through physical examination, tuberculosis, skin test, blood tests, imaging tests (X-ray and CT scan), and sputum tests. Furthermore, treatment options for tuberculosis include antimicrobial drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide.
What is Paratuberculosis?
Paratuberculosis is a contagious infection that primarily affects the intestine of ruminant animals such as cattle. It is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. This disease has also been seen in non-ruminants such as rabbits, foxes, birds, horses, and dogs. Paratuberculosis was first discovered by Heinrich A Johne, a German bacteriologist and veterinarian, in 1905.
Paratuberculosis infection is found worldwide. But it is very popular in countries such as Australia and Canada. Moreover, paratuberculosis is also known as bovine Johne’s disease or BJD. The signs and symptoms of paratuberculosis may include diarrhoea, wasting, weight loss, emaciation, decreased milk production or roughening of the hair coat, bottle jaw or intermandibular edema, dehydration, and severe cachexia. In sheep and goats, the wool or hair is damaged and easily shed. These animals’ diarrhoea is uncommon. Often clinical similarities are seen between Johne’s disease in ruminants and inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Paratuberculosis can be diagnosed through examination of faeces by microscopy, culture, use of DNA probes, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, the treatment options may include antimicrobials such as isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, amikacin, clofazimine, and dapsone.
What are the Similarities Between Tuberculosis and Paratuberculosis?
- Tuberculosis and paratuberculosis are two infectious diseases caused by the bacterial species belonging to the genus Mycobacterium.
- Both diseases may show similar symptoms, such as weakness, weight loss, etc.
- They can be diagnosed through physical examination.
- They are predominantly treated through antimicrobial drugs.
What is the Difference Between Tuberculosis and Paratuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is a contagious respiratory infection of humans that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while paratuberculosis is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants that is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Thus, this is the key difference between tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. Furthermore, tuberculosis is acquired through aerosolization and affects the lung tissues, while paratuberculosis is acquired through the oral route and affects the intestine and lymphatic tissues.
The following table summarizes the difference between tuberculosis and paratuberculosis.
Summary – Tuberculosis vs Paratuberculosis
Mycobacterium is a genus having pathogenic bacterial species. It belongs to the phylum of Actinomycetota and the family Mycobacteriaceae. Tuberculosis and paratuberculosis are two infectious diseases caused by the bacterial species belonging to the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis is a contagious respiratory infection in humans. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Paratuberculosis is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants. It is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. So, this summarizes the difference between tuberculosis and paratuberculosis.