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Difference Between Dynamic Microphone and Condenser Microphone

Dynamic Microphone vs Condenser Microphone

The main purpose of a microphone is to capture the sound of the artist performing or the sounds of people speaking. There are various types of microphones available in the market and the most popular ones are the dynamic microphone and condenser microphone. People are not aware of the differences between dynamic microphone and condenser microphone as also their usage. This article will explain the working principles behind dynamic and condenser microphones to let people have a better understanding.

What is Condenser microphone?

This is a microphone that makes use of a diaphragm as part of a capacitor. This diaphragm moves because of the vibrations caused by the voice coming inside. These vibrations move the plates and the distance between these plates decides the sound that is caught. These microphones are more often used to record non voice sounds such as those of instruments or sound effects if they are being utilized in a live concert.

How does Condenser microphone work?

There are two plates in a condenser microphone, one of which is movable while the other is a fixed one. These two plates create a capacitor. This capacitor is charged with electric supply. When sound waves cause one of the plates to move, it creates an electrostatic charge between the plates which changes the voltage between the plates. The varying capacitance is proportional to the displacement of the plate, which in turn depends upon the strength of the sound waves. Small current flows between the plates in this condition and this current has to be amplified before reaching your ears.

What is Dynamic microphone?

These microphones are much more commonly used and are spotted at any live music or speaking program. They use electromagnetic conduction to capture sound. Singers, performers, orators and politicians make use of dynamic microphones. A dynamic microphone is either a moving coil or a ribbon microphone.

How does Dynamic microphone work?

In a moving coil microphone, the coil is suspended in a magnetic field and when sound waves strike the diaphragm inside the microphone, this coil moves which creates an electrical signal of the sound. In case a ribbon is used, it performs the same function of a coil. As diaphragm moves because of sound waves, the magnet induces a current in the coil. This current can be amplified and stored as analog sound signal.

Differences between Dynamic Microphone and Condenser Microphone

• Condenser microphone is more fragile and expensive than a dynamic microphone. Being rugged, dynamic microphones are better suited for outdoor usage.

• Dynamic microphones produce small output signal which implies they are not suited for picking up soft and distant sounds.

• Condenser microphones are more sensitive in picking up sounds.

• While dynamic microphones use the principle of electromagnetic induction, condenser microphones make use of capacitors to capture sounds.

• Condenser microphones require additional power to operate which is not required in case of dynamic microphones.


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