Polar vs Nonpolar
As proposed by the American chemist G.N.Lewis, atoms are stable when they contain eight electrons in their valence shell. Most of the atoms have less than eight electrons in their valence shells (except the noble gases in the group 18 of the periodic table); therefore, they are not stable. These atoms tend to react with each other to become stable. Thus, each atom can achieve a noble gas electronic configuration. For the atoms to be reacted with each other, there should be attractions. Electron movements in atoms or molecules make them polar or nonpolar, and this helps their interactions.
Polarity arises due to the differences in electronegativity. Electronegativity gives a measurement of an atom to attract electrons in a bond. Usually Pauling scale is used to indicate the electronegativity values. If the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is very large (more than 1.7), then the bond will be ionic. For a bond to be a polar, the electronegativity difference should not exceed the value 1.7. Depending on the degree of electronegativity difference, the polarity can be changed. This degree of difference may be higher or lower. So, the bond electron pair is pulled more by one atom compared to the other atom which is participating in making the bond. This will result in an unequal distribution of electrons between the two atoms. Because of the uneven sharing of electrons, one atom will have a slightly negative charge whereas the other atom will have a slightly positive charge. At this instance, we say that the atoms have obtained a partial negative or positive charge. The atom with a higher electronegativity gets the slight negative charge, and the atom with a lower electronegativity will get the slight positive charge. Polarity means the separation of the charges. These molecules have a dipole moment. Dipole moment measures the polarity of a bond, and it is commonly measured in debyes (it also has a direction).
Polar substances tend to interact with other polar substances.
When two of the same atom or atoms having the same electronegativity form a bond between them, those atoms pull the electron pair in a similar way. Therefore, they tend to share the electrons and this kind of bonds is known as non polar covalent bonds. For example, when the same atoms are joined to form molecules like Cl2, H2, or P4, each atom is bonded to another by a non polar covalent bond. These molecules are nonpolar molecules.
Nonpolar substances like to interact with other nonpolar substances.
What is the difference between Polar and Non-polar?
• Polar molecules have an electrical dipole moment whereas nonpolar molecules don’t have a dipole moment.
• Polar molecules have a charge separation in contrast to nonpolar molecules.
• Polar substances tend to interact with other polar substances; they don’t like to interact with nonpolar substances.