Hydrogen Atom vs Hydrogen Ion
Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table, which is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton or share the electron to make covalent bonds. Because of this ability, hydrogen is present in a large number of molecules, and it is a highly abundant element in the earth. Hydrogen has three isotopes named as protium-1H (no neutrons), deuterium-2H (one neutron) and tritium- 3H (two neutrons). Protium is the most abundant among three having about 99% relative abundance. Hydrogen exists as a diatomic molecule (H2) in the gas phase, and it is a colorless, odorless gas. Furthermore, hydrogen is an extremely flammable gas, and it burns with a pale blue flame. Hydrogen is not very reactive under normal room temperature. However, in high temperatures it can react fast. H2 is in the zero oxidation state; therefore, it can act as a reducing agent, to reduce metal oxides, or chlorides and release metals. Hydrogen is used in chemical industries such as for ammonia production in Haber process. Liquid hydrogen is used as a fuel in rockets and vehicles.
The elements in the periodic table are not stable except the noble gases. Therefore, elements try to react with other elements, to gain the noble gas electron configuration to achieve stability. Likewise, hydrogen also has to get an electron to achieve the electron configuration of the noble gas, Helium. All nonmetals react with hydrogen, forming hydrogen ions. Except some similarities, hydrogen atom and hydrogen ion has different physical and chemical properties due to the change of one electron.
Hydrogen atom is the first element in the periodic table. Hydrogen atom has one electron and one proton. Therefore, it has the electron configuration of 1s1. It only has one electron filled in the s-sub orbital where two electrons can be accommodated. Therefore, hydrogen atom is unstable and very reactive in order to obtain a stable electron configuration. Depending on the isotope the number of neutrons in the nucleus can vary as mentioned above.
Hydrogen ion is also termed as hydron. It is made by the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen ion has a +1 charge (monovalent). The cation of the protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider as the protium natural abundance is very high compared to other isotopes. This exists in aqueous solutions as hydronium ions (H3O+). Hydrogen ions are responsible for acidity, and the concentration of hydrogen ions is taken to calculate pH values. When hydrogen atoms react with other non metals hydrogen ions are formed, and these are released to the aqueous medium completely or partially when the molecule is dissolved.
What is the difference between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion?
• Hydrogen ion carries a +1 charge, as opposed to neutrally charged hydrogen atom.
• Hydrogen atom has one proton and one electron, whereas hydrogen ion has one proton, but no electrons.
• Because of the release of one electron, the hydrogen ion radius differs from the atomic radius.
• Hydrogen atom is more reactive than the ion because it is more unstable. The ion has achieved the helium electron configuration; therefore, it is stable.
• Hydrogen ion is attracted to negatively charged electrodes, but hydrogen atom is not.