The **key difference** between normality factor and titration error is that **normality factor gives the ratio between an observed value and the theoretical value whereas titration error gives the difference between the observed endpoint and the actual endpoint of a titration. **

Normality factor and titration error are important in analytical chemistry for the determination of the variation of the observed result from the theoretically true result for the same experiment.

### CONTENTS

1. Overview and Key Difference

2. What is Normality Factor

3. What is Titration Error

4. Side by Side Comparison – Normality Factor vs Titration Error in Tabular Form

5. Summary

## What is Normality Factor?

Normality factor is the ratio between the observed value and the theoretical value of the weight with respect to the preparation of a solution. In other words, the normality factor refers to the ratio between the observed weight of solute to the theoretical weight of the solute that is required in preparing a desired solution with a known normality value.

The normality of a solution refers to the gram equivalent weight of a solute that is present in a liter of a solution. Therefore, we can name it as the equivalent concentration. The symbol for normality is “N”. Generally, the unit of measurement of normality is eq/L (equivalent per liter). For very small amounts, we can use the unit as meq/L (milliequivalent per liter).

To easiest method to calculate the normality of a solution is to use the molarity of the solution. For example, 1 M sulfuric acid has 2 N normality in acid-base reactions because one sulfuric acid molecule can give two moles of hydrogen ions. Then we can determine the normality factor by dividing the normality with molarity; e.g. the normality factor for sulfuric acid is 2. However, the most precise method of determining the normality factor is the calculation of the observed weight of the solute that is present in a solution and the calculation of the theoretical weight.

## What is Titration Error?

Titration error is the difference between the endpoint and the equivalence point of a titration. In other words, the term titration error refers to the volume of the endpoint that is higher or lower than the equivalence point. The endpoint of a titration is the observed end of the reaction that gives a change in the color.

However, the equivalence point is the exact volume where the reaction in the titration flask stops. The endpoint of a titration is the point where the reaction ends according to the indicator used in the titration.

## What is the Difference Between Normality Factor and Titration Error?

The terms normality factor and titration error describe the variation of a result that is obtained from a particular experiment with respect to the theoretically calculated result. The key difference between normality factor and titration error is that normality factor gives the ratio between an observed value and the theoretical value whereas titration error gives the difference between the observed endpoint and the actual endpoint of a titration.

Moreover, normality factor is a ratio while titration error is the difference between two values.

Below infographic summarizes the difference between normality factor and titration error.

## Summary – Normality Factor vs Titration Error

Normality factor and titration error are important in analytical chemistry for the determination of the variation of the observed result from the theoretically true result for the same experiment. The key difference between normality factor and titration error is that normality factor gives the ratio between an observed value and the theoretical value whereas titration error gives the difference between the observed endpoint and the actual endpoint of a titration.

##### Reference:

1. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. “How to Calculate Normality (Chemistry).” ThoughtCo, Feb. 11, 2020, Available here.

##### Image Courtesy:

1. “Redox Titration Using Indicator” (CC0) via Free SVG

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