The key difference between cell plate and cleavage furrow is that cell plate is a plate found only in plant cells, while cleavage furrow is an indentation found only in animal cells and some algae cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Eukaryotes have two distinct cell divisions as mitosis and meiosis. But prokaryotes have vegetative cell division called binary fission. Cytokinesis is an important part of the cell division process in which the cytoplasm of a cell divides into two daughter cells. Cell plate and cleavage furrow are two components that help cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Cell Plate
3. What is Cleavage Furrow
4. Similarities – Cell Plate and Cleavage Furrow
5. Cell Plate vs Cleavage Furrow in Tabular Form
6. Summary – Cell Plate vs Cleavage Furrow
What is Cell Plate?
A cell plate is a structure found only in terrestrial plant cells. In the formation of the cell plate, the Golgi and endosomal derived vesicles-carrying components of the cell wall and cell membrane reach the plane of cell division in cytokinesis. The subsequent fusion of these vesicles within this plane forms the cell plate. After the formation of the initial labile cell plate at the centre of the cell, it consolidates into a tubular network and eventually a fenestrated sheet at the end of the process. This cell plate grows outward from the centre of the cell to the parental plasma membrane. Then it fuses with the parental plasma membrane and thus completes the cell division in plant cells.
The formation and growth of the cell plate are dependent upon the phragmoplast. Phragmoplast is a plant cell-specific structure generated in late cytokinesis. Therefore, phragmoplast is required for proper targeting of the Golgi and endosomal derived vesicles to the cell plate. Moreover, as the cell matures in the centre of the cell, the phragmoplast disassembles in this region. The new elements also are added on the outside of the phragmoplast. This leads to the steady expansion of phragmoplast. Furthermore, this also helps to continue the retargeting of Golgi derived vesicles to the growing edge of the cell plate. Ultimately, when the cell plate fuses with the plasma membrane, phragmoplast disappears.
What is Cleavage Furrow?
Cleavage furrow is an indentation found in animal cells or some algae cells. It is an indentation on the surface of the cell that begins the progression of cleavage. Due to this, animal and some algal cells undergo cytokinesis. The proteins responsible for muscle contraction, such as actin and myosin, begin the process of forming cleavage furrow. These proteins form the actomyosin ring. Generally, this ring forms within the equatorial region of the cell membrane that constricts the plasma membrane to form the cleavage furrow.
During cleavage of the animal cell, the actomyosin ring tightens around the cytoplasm of the cell until the cytoplasm is pinched into two daughter cells. This process aides the final separation of the cell into two identical daughter cells. Furthermore, the bridge created by cleavage furrow and mitotic spindle fibres is broken and resealed to form the two identical daughter cells during cytokinesis. The resealing is carried out by using the calcium-dependent exocytosis mechanism of Golgi vesicles.
What are the Similarities Between Cell Plate and Cleavage Furrow?
- Cell plate and cleavage furrow are cell components appearing during the cytokinesis.
- Both are found in eukaryotic cells.
- These structures help to form two identical cells from a parent cell.
- They are both important components of cells that contribute to the survival of cells.
- Both structures disappear after cytokinesis.
What is the Difference Between Cell Plate and Cleavage Furrow?
Cell plate is a structure found only in plants cells, while cleavage furrow is a structure found in animal cells or some algae cells. So, this is the key difference between cell plate and cleavage furrow. Furthermore, cell plate develops in the centre of plants cell, whereas cleavage furrow develops in the plasma membrane of animal or algae cells. Hence, this is another difference between cell plate and cleavage furrow.
The following infographic compiles more differences between cell plate and cleavage furrow in tabular form for side by side comparison.
Summary – Cell Plate vs Cleavage Furrow
Cell plate and cleavage furrow are cell components arising during the cytokinesis of cell division. Cell plate is a structure made up of the fusion of Golgi and endosomal derived vesicles. It is found only in terrestrial plants cells. Cleavage furrow is an indentation made through constricting the plasma membrane by the actomyosin ring. It is found only in animal or algae cells. Thus, this is the summary of the difference between cell plate and cleavage furrow.