Difference Between Bromine and Chlorine

Bromine vs Chlorine | Br vs Cl
 

Halogens are group VII elements in the periodic table, and all are electronegative elements and have the capability to produce -1 anions.

Bromine

Bromine is denoted by the symbol Br. This is in the 4th period of the periodic table between chlorine and iodine halogens. Its electronic configuration is [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5. The atomic number of bromine is 35. Its atomic mass is 79.904. Bromine stays as a red-brown color liquid at room temperature. It exists as a diatomic molecule, Br2. It is toxic, corrosive and has a strong odor.  Chemical reactivity of bromine lies between that of chlorine and iodine. Bromine is less reactive than chlorine but more reactive than iodine. It produces the bromide ion by taking up one electron. Therefore, bromine participates in ionic compound formation easily. Actually in nature bromine exists as bromide salts instead of Br2. There are two stable bromine isotopes. 79Br (50.69 %) and 81Br (49.31%) are those isotopes. Bromine is slightly soluble in water but soluble well in organic solvents like chloroform. Bromine can be produced by treating bromide rich brines with chlorine gas, or else by treating HBr with sulfuric acid, bromine gas can be produced. Bromine is widely used in industry and chemical laboratories. Bromide compounds are used as gasoline additives and for pesticides.

Chlorine

Chlorine is an element in the periodic table which is denoted by Cl.  It is a halogen (17th group) in the 3rd period of the periodic table. The atomic number of chlorine is 17; thus, it has seventeen protons and seventeen electrons. Its electron configuration is written as 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5. Since the p sub level should have 6 electrons to obtain the Argon, noble gas electron configuration, chlorine has the ability to attract an electron. Chlorine has a very high electronegativity, which is about 3, according to the Pauling scale. The atomic weight of chlorine is 35.453 amu. Under room temperature chlorine exists as a diatomic molecule (Cl2). Cl2 is a yellow – greenish color gas. Chlorine has a melting point of -101.5 °C and a boiling point of -34.04 °C. Among all the chlorine isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37 are the most stable isotopes. 35Cl present in 75.77% in the atmosphere and 37Cl present in 24.23%. When chlorine gas is dissolved in water, it forms hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid, which are highly acidic. Chlorine has all the oxidation numbers varying from -1 to +7. Chlorine is a highly reactive gas. It can release bromine and iodine from bromide and iodide salts respectively. Therefore, it has the ability to oxide the anions of elements which are located below chlorine in the periodic table. However, it cannot oxidize fluoride to give fluorine. Chlorine is mainly produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. Then at the anode chlorine gas can be collected. Chlorine is mainly used as a disinfectant in water purification. Further it is used in manufacturing a wide range of consumer products like food, insecticides, paints, petroleum products, plastics, medicines, textiles, solvents.

 

What is the difference between Bromine and Chlorine?

• Symbol of bromine is Br and chlorine is Cl.

• Bromine is less reactive than chlorine.

• At room temperature, Cl2 is a gas but Br2 is a liquid.

• Bromide anions can be oxidized to bromine with Cl2.