rRNA vs mRNA | ribosomal RNA vs messenger RNA
Nucleic acids are the operators of life having the liberty to control almost everything related to life. DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) and RNA (Ribose Nucleic Acid) are the two main nucleic acids, and RNA is of three main types known as mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA based on their function and place of occurrence. This article intends to explore the characteristics of both rRNA and mRNA, in addition to the important and interesting differences between those are discussed, as well.
rRNA is the standard, shortened form for the ribosomal RNA. rRNA is connected always with ribosome, and they are so named. In other words, rRNA is the RNA component of a ribosome. The basic functions of rRNA are associated with protein synthesis inside a cell, and those are of much importance.
The decoding of messenger RNA into amino acids is governed by rRNA, as it provides the mechanism. In addition, rRNA interacts with transfer RNA during translation, which is the conversion of a base sequence of a nucleic acid (nucleotide sequence) into a protein molecule. Two subunits have been identified in ribosomal RNA known as the large subunit (LSU) and the small subunit (SSU). During protein synthesis, the mRNA strand is read at the small subunit while the protein molecule is formed and progressed at the large subunit. However, it would be interesting to know that the messenger RNA strand is progressed through the two subunits, often called sandwiched between SSU and LSU, while the formation of peptide bond in the protein molecule is catalysed by the ribosome. In addition, rRNAs being nucleic acids with nucleotide sequences, those could be regarded as reserves of genetic material.
mRNA is the transcribed copy of a gene in DNA, and it provides important information for the protein molecule to be synthesized. In other words, it could be considered as the chemical blueprint of a protein. mRNA is the standard, abbreviated form for messenger RNA.
Since mRNA carries information from DNA to form the protein strand, its function has been interested to be so named as messenger RNA. RNA polymerase enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds at the desired place of the DNA strand and open double helix structure to expose the nitrogenous base sequence. RNA polymerase arranges the corresponding Ribonucleotides according to the exposed base sequence of the DNA strand. Furthermore, RNA polymerase enzyme aids in forming the new strand by forming the sugar-phosphate bonds. After the formation of the mRNA strand, it provides information for protein synthesis as codons, which are triplets of consecutive nitrogenous bases. These codons are read at ribosomal RNA and the protein chains are formed using the sequence.
What is the difference between rRNA and mRNA?
• mRNA carries information from DNA to ribosome sites for protein synthesis while rRNA facilitates the synthesis of protein.
• mRNA is formed in the nucleus whereas rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus.
• rRNA is attached to ribosomes but not the mRNA.
• rRNA last longer than mRNA, as mRNA is destroyed after providing the nucleotide sequence.