Difference Between Thiamine Mononitrate and Thiamine Hydrochloride

Key Difference – Thiamine Mononitrate vs Thiamine Hydrochloride
 

Both Thiamine Mononitrate and Thiamine Hydrochloride are sources of Thiamine (vitamin B1). Thiamine mononitrate is prepared from Thiamine hydrochloride by removing chloride ion and mixing the final product with a nitric acid. This is the key difference between Thiamine mononitrate and Thiamine hydrochloride, and further differences will be discussed in this article

What is Thiamine Mononitrate?

Thiamine mononitrate (IUPAC name 3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium nitrate) is defined by the CAS number 532-43-4 and the EINECS number 208-537-4. The molecular formula for Thiamine mononitrate is C12H17N4 OS.NO3. The structural formula of Thiamine mononitrate is as follows.

Difference Between Thiamine Mononitrate and Thiamine Hydrochloride

Thiamine mononitrate is also known as mononitrate de thiamine, nitrate de thiamine.  It is also known by the generic names of Thiamine such as antiberiberi factor and antiberiberi vitamin.

Thiamine mononitrate is a stable nitrate salt, which occurs as a white crystalline powder with a faint characteristic odor and bitter taste. It is prepared from Thiamine hydrochloride and is considered as nutritional additive. It has a shelf life of 36 months at 25°C.

Thiamine mononitrate is used to treat beriberi, general malnutrition, and malabsorption. It is the source which used in food fortification. Thiamine mononitrate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as per the US Food And Drug Administration (FDA). But Thiamine mononitrate has the potential to elicit mild to severe allergic reactions as it is a synthetic compound.

What is Thiamine Hydrochloride?

Thiamine hydrochloride (IUPAC name 3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride hydrochloride) is identified by the CAS number 67-03-8, the EINECS number 200-641-8 and the FLAVIS number 16027. The molecular formula for Thiamine hydrochloride is C12H17N4OS.Cl.HCl. The structural formula of Thiamine hydrochloride is shown below.

Main Difference - Thiamine Mononitrate vs Thiamine Hydrochloride

Thiamine

Thiamine hydrochloride is a hydrochloride salt of thiamine. Thiamine hydrochloride is a white or almost white crystalline odorless powder.  It is an essential vitamin for aerobic metabolism, cell growth, transmission of nerve impulses and acetylcholine synthesis. It is considered as a nutritional additive and has a shelf life of 36 months at 25°C.

What is the difference between Thiamine Mononitrate and Thiamine Hydrochloride?

Characteristics of Thiamine Mononitrate and Thiamine Hydrochloride

Water Absorption:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate has no hygroscopic properties .

Thiamine hydrochloride: Thiamine hydrochloride is hygroscopic.

Stability:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate is more stable than Thiamine hydrochloride.

Thiamine hydrochloride: Thiamine hydrochloride  is less stable than Thiamine mononitrate.

Molecular Weight:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate has a molecular weight of 327.36.

Thiamine hydrochloride:Thiamine hydrochloride has a molecular weight of 337.3.

Melting Point:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate has a melting point of 198°C.

Thiamine hydrochloride: Thiamine hydrochloride  has a melting point of 248-250 °C.

Density:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate has a density of  0.35 g/mL.

Thiamine hydrochloride:Thiamine hydrochloride has a density of  0.4 g/mL.

Manufacturing Process:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate  is obtained from Thiamine hydrochloride

Thiamine hydrochloride: Thiamine hydrochloride is obtained by the use of an ion exchange resin from Thiamine sulfate

Purity Criteria:

Thiamine mononitrate: Thiamine mononitrate  is >97

Thiamine hydrochloride: Thiamine hydrochloride is  >93.5

Reference

Thiamine [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine.

Thiamine mononitrate [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine_mononitrate.

EUROPEAN FOOD SAFTY AUTHORITY, I. 2011. Scientific Opinion. EFSA Journal, 9, 8

Image Courtesy:
“Thiamine mononitrate” By WildCation – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
“Thiamin” By NEUROtiker – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia