Berries vs Fruits
Double fertilization is a complicated reproduction process commonly seen in flowering plants. During double fertilization, the female gametophyte fuses with two male gametophytes giving rise to a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm, which is a nutrient rich tissue that provides nutrients to the developing embryos. After fertilization, the accessory parts of the flower fall off. That is sepals, petals, stamens, style and stigma. In some species, the sepals may persist. The ovary becomes the fruit. In other words, fruit is a mature ovary of a flower. Fruit protects the seeds by surrounding them. In certain cases, the fruit helps in the seed dispersal. Wall of the ovary becomes the pericarp of the fruit. Ovule becomes the seed and integuments become the seed coat. Diploid zygote becomes the embryo and the triploid primary endosperm nucleus becomes the endosperm.
Fruits are of three types. Those are simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and multiple fruits. In single fruits, there is only one single ovary. It may contain one or more seeds. Simple fruits may be fleshy or dry. A popular example for a single fruit is a berry. Aggregate fruits are derived from a single compound flower. It contains many ovaries. One example for aggregate fruits is blackberry. Multiple fruits are derived from multiple flowers with fused ovaries. The pericarp of the fruit has 3 layers. Those are the exocarp, mesocarp and the endocarp. Exocarp is also known as the peel, and the endocarp is known as the pith. Exocarp is the outermost layer of the pericarp. It is more like a tougher outer skin. Exocarp is also called the epicarp. Mesocarp is the fleshy middle layer. It is found in between the exocarp and the endocarp. Endocarp is the innermost layer of the pericarp. It surrounds the seeds. The endocarp may be membranous or thick and hard.
Berries are simple fruits. They grow from a single ovary. It is a fleshy fruit. When ripened the entire ovary wall becomes an edible pericarp. Seeds are found embedded in the flesh of the ovary. Plants bearing berries are called bacciferous and plants bearing fruits similar to berries are called baccate. These are not true berries. Berries may develop from inferior or superior ovaries. Berries that develop from inferior ovaries are called epigynous berries. Those are false berries. False berries have tissues derived from floral parts other than ovary. The floral tube formed from the basal part of the sepals together with petals and stamens become fleshy at maturity. These floral parts unite with the ovary to form the fruit. A good example of a false berry or an epigynous berry is banana which is a common fruit. Berries that develop from superior ovaries are called true berries. Some examples of true berries are grapes, strawberries and tomato.
What is the difference between Berries and Fruits?
• Berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary but in contrast, fruits can be produced from simple ovary or multiple ovaries.
• When ripened the entire ovary wall of the berry becomes an edible but it may not the same case in all the fruits.