Glucose and sucrose are categorized as carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the most abundant type of organic molecules on the earth. They are the source of chemical energy for living organisms. They also serve as important constituents of tissues. Carbohydrate can be categorized into three as monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
What is Sucrose?
Sucrose is a disaccharide. It is made by the combination of a glucose and fructose molecule via a glycosidic bond. During this reaction, a water molecule is eliminated from the two molecules. Sucrose can be hydrolyzed back into the starting molecules when needed. This is a disaccharide, which we find commonly in plants.
Moreover, glucose, which is produced from the photosynthesis in leaves, should be distributed to other growing and storing parts of the plant. It is transported in the form of sucrose. Therefore, in plants, glucose is converted to sucrose in order to distribute them. We all are familiar with sucrose as we use it in our day to day lives, as table sugar. Sucrose is a white crystalline solid. It has a sweet taste and is readily soluble in water.
What is Glucose?
Glucose is a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group. Therefore, it is a hexose and an aldose. It has four hydroxyl groups and has the following structure.
Though it is shown as a linear structure, glucose can be present as a cyclic structure too. In fact, in a solution, the majority of molecules are in the cyclic structure. When a cyclic structure is forming, the -OH on carbon 5 is converted into the ether linkage, to close the ring with carbon 1. This forms a six-member ring structure. The ring is also called a hemiacetal ring due to the presence of carbon that has both an ether oxygen and an alcohol group. Because of the free aldehyde group, glucose can be reduced. Thus, it is called a reducing sugar. Further, glucose is also known as dextrose because it rotates plane-polarized light to the right.
When there is sunlight, in plants, glucose is synthesized using water and carbon dioxide. This glucose is stored and used as a source of energy. Animals and human obtain glucose from plant sources. The glucose level in human blood is regulated by the homeostasis mechanism. Insulin and glucagon hormones are involving in the mechanism. When there is high glucose level in the blood, it is called a diabetic condition. The measurement of blood sugar level measures the glucose level in blood. There are various means to measure the blood glucose level.
What is the Difference Between Sucrose and Glucose?
The key difference between sucrose and glucose is that sucrose is a disaccharide while glucose is a monosaccharide. Sucrose is made by the combination of a glucose and fructose molecule via a glycosidic bond. Moreover, the molecular weight of sucrose is higher than that of glucose. Also, the chemical formula of sucrose is C12H22O11 while the chemical formula of glucose is C6H12O6. Moreover, sucrose is a non-reducing sugar whereas glucose is a reducing sugar.
Below info-graphic tabulates side by side the differences between sucrose and glucose.
Summary – Sucrose vs Glucose
Glucose is a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group. Sucrose is made by the combination of a glucose and fructose molecule via a glycosidic bond. Sucrose is a disaccharide while glucose is a monosaccharide. Moreover, sucrose is a non-reducing sugar whereas glucose is a reducing sugar. Thus, this is the summary of the difference between sucrose and glucose.