District vs Superior Court
It is indeed a complex exercise to identify the difference between District Court and Superior Court. The fact that the definitions of these terms vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction only adds to the complexity. Perhaps it is best to understand the terms from a general perspective and thereby identify the difference between them. Keep in mind that not all countries have District Courts. The term ‘Superior Court’ prima facie refers to a court that exercises some form of superiority over other courts in the judicial system. Let us take a closer look at the definitions of both terms.
What is District Court?
A District Court is defined overall as a court or trial court that exercises jurisdiction over certain cases within its prescribed territory. It is also referred to as a court of first instance in certain nations. This means that it is the court in which a legal action is initiated or commenced. Thus, the parties and the judge converge for the very first time in a District Court. A District Court is also referred to as a lower court, indicating that it is on the lower level in the hierarchy of the legal system.
In the United States, a District Court generally refers to the federal trial court. Thus, cases involving federal law are typically initiated in a District Court. Further, there are District Courts in each state, which constitute courts of general jurisdiction having the power to exercise original jurisdiction over matters pertaining to bankruptcy, criminal matters, admiralty, and maritime issues. The District Court under the federal system is the lowest court. A key feature of the District Court is that its jurisdiction is restricted to a particular area or location. At the end of a trial in a District Court, in the event the losing party is not satisfied with the order, he/she can appealagainst the order to a higher court.
What is Superior Court?
In contrast, as mentioned before, a Superior Court by its very designation refers to a court that has superiority over other courts. Traditionally, a Superior Court is defined as a court that is not subject to the control of another court except by way of appeal. This definition is in line with the concept of a Superior Court in jurisdictions such as the United States and England. In both these jurisdictions, a Superior Court refers to a court that is above the lower court(s), but below the highest appellate court. A popular example of a Superior Court is the Court of Appeal. Superior Courts typically hear cases received from the District Courts by way of appeal. The fact that a Superior Court is not subject to control suggests that the decisions of such a court carry importance and considerable authority.
The concept of a Superior Court originated in England wherein the royal courts were considered the highest judicial body in the country. Decisions of lower courts were sometimes sent for review by the royal courts particularly because the Crown was considered the fountain of justice. In the United States, the circuit court is often referred to as a Superior Court in that it serves as a court of appeal hearing appeals from cases tried in the District Court.
What is the difference between District and Superior Court?
• A District Court is located on the lower level of the hierarchy of the legal system while a Superior Court is located on a higher level.
• Appeals from cases heard and tried in the District Court are decided in a Superior Court such as the Court of Appeal.
• A District Court is generally a court of first instance in that legal actions or lawsuits are commenced in such a court.
• In contrast, a Superior Court typically functions as an appellate court, hearing and deciding on appeals received from the lower courts. It is not subject to control by other courts except by way of appeal.
- Covington, Virginia: Allegheny General District Court by Jarekt (CC BY-SA 3.0)
- Lake County Superior Court, Gary, Indiana by Chris Light (CC BY-SA 3.0)