Gonads vs Gametes
Gonads and gametes are two most important components of the reproductive system in organisms. These components are involved in sexual reproduction, which occurs via the fusion of two gametes from two different parents and has the end result of genetically unequal offspring. Sexual reproduction, basically, requires the production of gametes in adult individuals, fertilization or conjugation of gametes to produce a zygote, and the development of zygote. The presence of both gonads and gametes are essential to complete the sexual reproduction cycle.
Gonads are the organs where gametes are produced through the process called gametogenesis. There are many differences between male and female gonads. In humans, the male gonads are called testes, where the spermatogenesis is taken place, and the female gonads are the ovaries, where oogenesis is taken place.
Usually, gonads are paired organs with associated ducts and accessory glands. Certain individuals possess both male and female gonads in their body. This phenomenon is known as hermaphroditism, and such species are called hermaphrodites. The hermaphroditism is common in fish, gastropods, jellyfish, and some flowering plants.
The main functions of gonads are the production of gametes and sexual hormones. In males, sperms are developed in a series of small, coiled tubes in testes, called somniferous tubules. Testosterone is the sex hormone produced in male gonads. In females, ovum develops in the ovary. Ovaries are paired organs in the lower abdominal cavity, and are responsible for the production of female sex hormone called estrogen.
Gametes are the haploid sex cells produced through the process called meiosis, and they involve in the sexual reproduction, in organisms. Since they are haploid, they contain a single copy of the genome. There are two types of gametes found in males and females. In males, they are called sperms, which are produced through spermatogenesis in testes. In females, gametes called ova (eggs), which are produced through the oogenesis occur in the ovaries. In males, diploid germ cells divide mitotically to form primary spermatocytes, which in turn undergo a series of meiosis to form four haploid spermatids from each primary spermatocyte. These spermatids are lately developed into sperms; the cells which composed of a head with DNA and a motile tail. In females, diploid primary sex cells undergo meiosis to produce a single mature egg.
What is the difference between Gonads and Gametes?
• Gonads are the sites (or organs) where gametes are produced.
• Gonads of the male are called testes, whereas gametes of the male are called sperms.
• Gonads of the female are called ovaries, whereas gametes of the female are called ova.
• Gonads are the organs, whereas gametes are the haploid sex cells.
• Gonads are responsible for the production of gametes and hormones, whereas gametes are responsible for the production of zygote.