The key difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells possess a true nucleus and true membrane-bound organelles while prokaryotic cells do not possess a true nucleus or true organelles.
Cells are an essential part in the formation of everything that is around us. The composition of the cells can be seen in two kinds: the eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. The first parts of these names “eu”’ and “pro” mean good and before, respectively. The second term refers to the nucleus. Thus “eukaryotic” means good nucleus (having a true nucleus) while prokaryotic refers to before a nucleus.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What are Eukaryotic Cells
3. What are Prokaryotic Cells
4. Similarities Between Eukaryotic Cells and Prokaryotic Cells
5. Side by Side Comparison – Eukaryotic Cells vs Prokaryotic Cells in Tabular Form
What are Eukaryotic Cells?
Eukaryotic cells are found in fungi, protists, plants, and animals. They are complex cells having a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. A plasma membrane encloses these cells, and they contain 80S ribosomes. These cells divide quite differently from prokaryotic cells. Multiple linear chromosomes are present in these cells, and they are located inside the nucleus.
The eukaryotic cell structures are different in the plants and animals. They have complex photosynthesis and respiratory processes.
What are Prokaryotic Cells?
Prokaryotic cells do not possess a nucleus in them. They are present in various shapes. They have hair-like structures on their surface. Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes which show prokaryotic cellular organization.
Moreover, they are known to have single cell structure. They also carry cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and ribosome in them. They do not support reproduction; their production is mainly on the basis of asexual procedures such as binary fission, budding etc. A prokaryotic cell contains a single circular chromosome that floats in the cytoplasm.
What are the Similarities Between Eukaryotic Cells and Prokaryotic Cells?
- Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells contain DNA.
- They can reproduce.
- Both are living cells.
- Both possess ribosomes.
- They produce proteins.
- Both cells transport molecules across the cell membrane.
- These cells require energy to perform metabolic processes.
What is the Difference Between Eukaryotic Cells and Prokaryotic Cells?
Eukaryotic cells possess a true nucleus and true membrane-bound organelles while prokaryotic cells do not possess a true nucleus and true membrane-bound organelles. Moreover, Eukaryotes are multi-cellular whereas prokaryotes are single-celled. DNA in eukaryotic cells is located inside the nucleus while DNA in prokaryotic cells is located in the cytoplasm. The former also has multiple linear chromosomes while the latter has a single circular chromosome.
Eukaryotic cells are more complex while prokaryotic cells are simple. Fungi, protists, animals, and plants contain eukaryotic cells whereas Bacteria and Archaea contain prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane which surrounds the nucleus, unlike prokaryotic cells. Their reproduction procedures are different; the cell division in eukaryotes occurs by mitosis and meiosis while the cell division in prokaryotes occurs by binary fission.
Summary – Eukaryotic Cells vs Prokaryotic Cells
It is said that the prokaryotic cells were found earlier than the eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a different structure than the latter, as they carry nucleus in their structures. The DNA of eukaryotic cells is inside the nucleus, and in prokaryotic it travels freely in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells have a very complex structure, and their sizes are ten times larger than the size of prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cell structures are very simple and smaller in size. This is the difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.