The key difference between Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum is that the Golgi apparatus is not directly associated with the nucleus while some parts of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous with the nuclear envelope.
Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum are two very important organelles present inside the cells. The two organelles are responsible for different but very important functions for the survival of the cells. Thus, it is necessary to explore the basic and most important characteristics of these organelles.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Golgi Apparatus
3. What is Endoplasmic Reticulum
4. Similarities Between Golgi Apparatus and Endoplasmic Reticulum
5. Side by Side Comparison – Golgi Apparatus vs Endoplasmic Reticulum in Tabular Form
What is Golgi Apparatus?
Golgi apparatus, also called Golgi bodies or Golgi complex, is a prominent organelle in eukaryotic cells, especially in both plant and animal cells. It is an arrangement of fluid-filled discs covered by a membrane similar to the cell membrane. Golgi apparatus is a part of the endomembrane system of cells, and it encases some important proteins and enzymes. Golgi complex carries out the packaging of proteins prior to sending them to the targets. Also, further processing of those proteins takes place inside Golgi bodies. Usually, Golgi bodies process the proteins produced at the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Then, the processed proteins are used for secretion.
Each cell synthesizes many different molecules through different biochemical processes, especially during metabolism and anabolism. Thus, these molecules should be properly sorted, modified, packaged, and delivered at the right place at the right time. Golgi apparatus is responsible for this purpose. Golgi apparatus carries out all these vital steps inside the cell.
In addition to proteins, Golgi bodies process lipids, proteins, enzymes, and many other types of molecules. Moreover, Golgi bodies produce enzyme-filled lysosomes.
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of the very important structures in a cell. ER exists in two forms: rough ER (RER) and smooth ER (SER). RER comes with ribosomes present on the external surface, which gives it a rough appearance in the microscope. However, SER has no ribosomes on its surface; hence, SER has a smooth appearance.
The structure of the ER is a network of tubules and vesicles, and the surface of RER looks like an extension of the nuclear envelope. On the other hand, SER is located throughout the cytoplasm evenly. Functionally, ER is responsible for several functions within the cell including poison detoxification, anabolism (aids in the construction of both proteins and lipids), and catabolic pathways of carbohydrate breakdown. When there is cell membrane damage, parts of the ER, especially RER, fill the gaps. Hence, it works as a reserve of plasma membrane for both cells and organelles.
What are the Similarities Between Golgi Apparatus and Endoplasmic Reticulum?
- Both Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum are two important cell organelles.
- These organelles are present only in eukaryotic cells.
- That is; the prokaryotic cells do not have Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.
- Also, they are membrane-bound organelles.
- And, both organelles contain a network of membrane-enclosed sacs.
- Besides, lipid metabolism occurs in both Golgi apparatus and smooth ER.
What is the Difference Between Golgi Apparatus and Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Golgi bodies or Golgi apparatus are an arrangement of few fluid-filled dishes whereas ER is a network of tubules and vesicles. Therefore, this is the key difference between Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, Golgi apparatus sorts, modifies, and delivers the components in a cell whereas ER is more of a structurally aiding organelle for metabolic activities. Functionally, this is a significant difference between Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.
Moreover, a further difference between Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum is that the lysosomes are formed at the Golgi complex while lysosomal hydrolases are synthesized at RER.
The below infographic presents more information regarding the difference between Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum comparatively.
Summary – Golgi Apparatus vs Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum are two important cell organelles present in eukaryotic cells. Both consist of membrane-enclosed fluid-filled sacs. However, parts of the ER are continuous with the nuclear envelope while Golgi apparatus is not associated with the nucleus. Moreover, RER has ribosomes on its surface while Golgi apparatus does not contain ribosomes. Furthermore, Golgi apparatus produces lysosomes while ER synthesizes lysosomal hydrolases. ER is the largest cell organelle compared to other cell organelles including Golgi apparatus. Thus, this summarizes the difference between Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.