The key difference between p53 and TP53 is that p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that prevents the development of tumours while TP53 is the gene that codes for p53 tumour protein.
P53 and TP53 are important elements in tumour suppression or preventing tumour development. TP53 is the gene that codes the protein p53, which is a tumour suppressor. Therefore, the TP53 gene expresses and produces isomers of p53 protein. p53 protein regulates cell cycles and stabilizes the genome. Moreover, it prevents genomic mutations that can lead to the development of cancers.
What is p53?
The p53 is a 53 kDa weighted protein that acts as a tumour suppressor. Thus, it prevents the development of tumours. In fact, it regulates the cell division of the cells that have the potential to proliferate uncontrollably. Further, this protein is present inside the nucleus directly, binding with the DNA. When there is damage to DNA, which can lead to tumour development, p53 acts against it. Also, this protein activates other genes to fix the damage if it is repairable. If the DNA damage is not repairable, p53 prevents the cell from dividing and signals it to undergo apoptosis. Thus, p53 plays a vital role in preventing tumour development in our body.
Scientists refer to this protein as the guardian of the genome due to its pivotal role in preventing genome mutations and protecting us from tumours.
What is TP53?
The TP53 is the gene that codes for p53 tumour suppressor protein. The human TP53 gene codes for 15 p53 protein isoforms, ranging in size from 3.5 to 43.7 kDa. These proteins bind with genomic DNA and regulate the gene expressions and DNA damages to prevent tumour formation. TP53 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 17 in the human genome. It is 20 kb long DNA sequence. The coding sequence is highly conserved in vertebrates.
TP53 gene mutations produce mutant p53 proteins. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare genetic disorder inherited from parent to offspring. It occurs due to a mutation in the TP53 gene. Further, this syndrome increases the risk of certain types of cancers such as breast cancer, bone cancer, leukaemia, and soft tissue cancers, etc. TP53 genetic test is a test done on blood or bone marrow. It assesses the mutations in the TP53 gene.
What are the Similarities Between p53 and TP53?
- TP53 gene has the genetic instructions to produce p53 tumour suppressor protein.
- Both TP53 and p53 are essential to prevent tumour development.
- p53 accumulation and TP53 mutations are breast cancer prognostic markers.
- Furthermore, TP53 gene mutations lead to the production and accumulation of mutant p53 proteins.
What is the Difference Between p53 and TP53?
The p53 is a protein, while TP53 is a gene. So, this is the key difference between p53 and TP53. Actually, the TP53 gene is the gene that expresses and produces p53 tumour-suppressing protein. Moreover, p53 protein weighs of 53kDa. In contrast, TP53 gene is a 20 kb nucleotide sequence.
The following infographic summarizes the difference between p53 and TP53.
Summary – p53 vs TP53
p53 is a protein that suppresses tumour development. In contrast, TP53 is the gene that contains the genetic information to produce p53 protein. Thus, this is the key difference between p53 and TP53. Moreover, TP53 gene mutations lead to the production of mutant p53 proteins, increasing the risk of several cancers in our body.
1. “P53.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Sept. 2019, Available here.
2. “TP53 Gene – Genetics Home Reference – NIH.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Available here.
By Thomas Splettstoesser – Based on atomic coordinates of PDB 1TUP, rendered with open-source molecular visualization tool PyMol (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Chromo 17 p53” By http://www.inrp.fr (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia