Difference Between Industrialization and Urbanization

Key Difference – Industrialization vs Urbanization
 

 

Industrialization and Urbanization are two processes between which a relationship exists although there is a difference between the two. Industrialization refers to the process in which a particular society transforms from an agrarian society to an industrial society. On the other hand, urbanization is the process where people migrate from villages to urban areas. The key difference between Industrialization and Urbanization is that urbanization can be viewed as a consequence of industrialization where people come to cities in search of work and better living standards. Through this article let us examine the differences in detail.

What is Industrialization?

Industrialization refers to the process in which a particular society transforms from an agrarian society to an industrial society. During such a period a large number of social and economic changes take place within a society. The idea of industrialization is mostly associated with the Industrial Revolution that took place in the late eighteenth century in England. This was a period of time that heralded great many changes in the society.

One of the key features was the rise of capitalism. Before industrialization, feudal systems operated in most societies, but with the dawn of capitalism, the entire economic system changed. People began to work as wage laborers in factories. A lot of attention was given to the development of science and technology which replaced the old belief systems with modern belief systems. With the improvements in technology, factories began to use machinery to quicken the production process. During the industrialization period, although a high development was to be seen with the creation of a large surplus, this was only enjoyed by the capitalist class. Industrialization had a number of impacts on the society such as exploitation of the working class, changes in the family structure and also urbanization.

Key Difference - Industrialization vs Urbanization

What is Urbanization?

Urbanization is the process where people migrate from villages to urban areas. This can be considered as a consequence of industrialization. As explained in the first section of the article, the process of industrialization led to a change in the social structure from agrarian to industrial societies. This included setting up of large factories in urban areas. For these factories, a large number of people were needed as factory workers. Through the urbanization process, people in the villages came to cities to work in these factories as they were no longer tied to the land as they were in the feudal system.

People migrated to the urban areas for various reasons. In the past, it was mainly to find work. However in the present, living in urban settings allows more opportunities such as better housing, education, and other facilities. However, urbanization also has negative effects on the individual. The person feels completely uprooted and isolated because the social cohesion that exists in a village cannot be seen in the city. Other than this stress, the high cost of living, alienation, and health issues can be experienced.

Difference Between Industrialization and Urbanization

What is the difference between Industrialization and Urbanization?

Definitions of Industrialization and Urbanization:

Industrialization: Industrialization refers to the process in which a particular society transforms from an agrarian society to an industrial society.

Urbanization: Urbanization is the process where people migrate from villages to urban areas.

Characteristics of Industrialization and Urbanization:

Process:

Industrialization: Industrialization is the primary process.

Urbanization: Urbanization is a secondary process.

Relationship:

Industrialization: Industrialization leads to urbanization.

Urbanization: Urbanization is a consequence of industrialization.

People:

Industrialization: As a result of industrialization, people work in factories.

Urbanization: As a result of urbanization, people move to cities.

Lifestyle:

Industrialization: Along with industrialization, most of the working class experiences a harsh lifestyle where they have to work for about 18 hours a day.

Urbanization: Along with urbanization, the family structures that existed in the villages are disrupted.

 

Image Courtesy:

1. Hartmann Maschinenhalle 1868(01) By Norbert Kaiser [Public Domain] via Wikimedia Commons

2. Tabriz Urbanization By Hoseinb007  derivative work: Msanta20 [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons